FOS2001 Man's Food Module 3 Lesson 9
FOS2001 Man's Food Module 3 Lesson 9 CCJ3024
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ3024 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Marvin Krohn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Advanced Principles of Criminology Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
FOS2001 Man's Food Module 3 Lesson 9 FATS - Introduction of the Fat Nutrient Terms (you do not need to have these memorized for the exam - just be aware of them) • Alphalinolenic acid a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega3 fatty acid family • Bile a secretion that emulsifies fat into smaller globules that allows enzymes to break down fat • Chylomicron a type of lipoprotein that carries digested fat and other lipids through the lymph system into the blood • Diglyceride a glycerol with only two attached fatty acids • Emulsifier a compound that keeps two incompatible substances (like oil and water) mixed together • Essential fatty acid the polyunsaturated fatty acids that the body cannot, so they need to be obtained from food • Fatty acid the most basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids • Glycerol threecarbon backbone of a triglyceride • Linoleic acid a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of omega6 fatty acid family • Lipid a category of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen compounds that are insoluble in water • Lipoproteins capsuleshaped transport carriers that enable fat and cholesterol to travel through the lymph and blood • Lymph watery fluid that circulates through the body in lymph vessels and eventually enters the blood • Micelles small transport carriers in the intestine that enable fatty acids and other compounds to be absorbed • Monoglyceride a glycerol with only one attached fatty acid • Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) a fatty acid that has one double bond • Phospholipids Lipids made up of two fatty acids and a phosphoruscontaining group attached to a glycerol backbone • Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) A fatty acid with two or more double bonds • Saturated fatty aci A fatty acid that has all of its carbons bound with hydrogen • Sterol A lipid that contains four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen • Triglyceride Three fatty acids that are attached to a glycerol backbone, also known as fat • Unsaturated fatty acid A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons Types of Fats • Ideally a person's diet should be 60% carbohydrates, 30% fat, and 10% protein ◦ American diet = 48% carbohydrates, 40% fat, 12% protein • Three types of fats/lipids ◦ Triglycerides • Most common most common fat in human body • Fats found in food • Consists of the backbone molecule glycerol, and three individual fatty acids • Made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen ◦ Phospholipids • Found primarily in call membranes • Made of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails • Most important component of cell membranes because of affinity to water in the cells ◦ Sterols • Contain four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen • Best known is cholesterol ■ Part of cell membrane and is essential for making steroid hormones Properties of fats • When broken down, every fat has a combination of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fat ◦ Characterized by a fat molecule that is completely saturated by hydrogen atoms ◦ Solid at room temperature ◦ Found predominantly in animal tissue (aka animal fat) • Monounsaturated fat ◦ Not completely saturated by hydrogen ◦ Has a gap where hydrogen atoms are missing ◦ Can be solid or liquid at room temperature • Polyunsaturated fats ◦ Fatty acids that as two or more double bonds or areas of unsaturation ◦ Behave mostly as a liquid ◦ Basis of many vegetable oils ◦ Have a very high degree of unsaturated Hydrogenating fats • Stability of fats is based on saturation levels • Saturated fats are the most stable • Hydrogenation stabilizes fat and changes properties ◦ Adds texture, shelf life to fat, and prevents it from becoming rancid Trans Fat • Ex/ Crisco and margarine • One of the concerns about the hydrogenation process in the formation of trans fats • Trans fats are becoming of increasing interest to nutritionists and health professionals because of consequences associated with it and health risks like cancer and coronary heart disease • Review food labels to determine trans fat Essential Fatty Acids • Must come from diet • Fatty acids can be viewed as a "chain" formation of chemicals • They are also starter materials for making longerchain fats (like those in fish oils that have health benefits enhanced autoimmune response, improved heart rate, improved growth/development) • Most animal products are saturated fats / most plant products are unsaturated ◦ HOWEVER cold water marine species have an abundance of unsaturated fat ◦ This is because the arachadonic fatty acids help marine species survive in cold water • Lack of essential fatty acids can result in severe dermatitis (inflammation of the skin) FATS - Sources of Fats In Our Diets Function of fats • Satisfies energy requirements 1g of fat = 9 calories • Body needs fat to get 3 essential fatty acids • Also contributes to the sensory experience of eating food ◦ Adds taste and palatability • Act as a protecting agent to absorb shock Fats in our bodies • Groups of fats in human body ◦ Lipoproteins molecules made of fat and proteins that move fat around body; 4 types • Chylomicron delivers fat from intestine to liver • VLDL very low density lipoprotein • LDL low density lipoprotein • HDL high density lipoprotein • VLDL, LDL, and HDL are blood proteins and found in circulatory system Lecithin, Adipose Tissue, and Cellulite • Other three fats in body • Lecithin ◦ Attracts water and lipids and keeps cell membranes healthy • Adipose Tissue ◦ Used primarily for fat storage • Cellulite ◦ Hardened fat deposits that look like dimples on body ◦ Occur when fat crystallizes and forms a crystalline structure that causes it to solidify FATS - Diseases Associated with the Fat Nutrient Factors for heart disease that you can control • Having a regular exercise program • Maintain a healthy weight • Stop smoking • Keep HDL cholesterol high • Keep LDL cholesterol low • Prevent/manage diabetes • Lower high blood pressure Reducing High Blood Pressure • High blood pressure is a major risk for developing heart disease • Weight loss and sodium restriction are the most effective ways to reduce high blood pressure • Other interventions increased potassium intake, increased calcium/magnesium intake, alcohol/caffeine restriction, increased consumption of fruits/vegetables/fibers, increased physical activity The Prudent Diet • To implement prudent diet: ◦ Reduce calories ◦ Limit cholesterol to 300 mg per day ◦ Reduce total fat to 30% of calorie consumption ◦ Substitute unsaturated fat for saturated fat • Other recommendations ◦ Limit foods with added sugars ◦ Keep salt intake to 3 grams or less per day ◦ Increase grains/fruits/vegetables ◦ Decrease meat/fish/poultry ◦ Lower intake of highfat foods ◦ Whole fat milk instead of nonfat milk ◦ Eat foods with starch and fiber
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