HDFS Chapter 2 Biocultural Foundations
HDFS Chapter 2 Biocultural Foundations 629152
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 629152 at penn state berks taught by Krysta Murillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see The Development of Children in Child Development at penn state berks.
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Chapter 2 Biocultural Foundations I. Inheriting Culture Culture: The use of material and symbolic tools that accumulate over time, are passed on through social processes, and provide resources for the developing child. Material tools: Are observable, and include manufactured objects and patterns of behavior. Ex: a crib, high chair, baby monitor. Symbolic tools: More abstract, including systems of knowledge, beliefs, and values. Ex: being male and being female. Mediation: Both types of tools provide resources for development by organizing children’s activities, including how children relate to their environment. Ex: toy guns, barbie dolls. Culture is inherited through social processes 1. Use of culture’s tools Social enhancement Imitation Explicit Instruction 2. Use of symbolic communication Unique to humans Learning about things not immediately present and about abstractions Complexity of Culture The Process of Cumulative Cultural Evolution Cultures continue to evolve because they are complex, with individuals producing variations in the material and symbolic cultural tools they use. The process of change is complex and messy. II. Biological Inheritance Evolution is made possible by heredity Transmission of biological characteristics from one generation to the next. Genes: Contains instructions that guide the formation of the individual’s traits. Genotypes: The individual’s particular set of genes. Phenotype: The individual's actual traits, behavior, and psychological traits. Natural Selection The process whereby individuals with phenotypes well adapted to the local environment survive and reproduce to a greater extent than do individuals with less welladapted phenotypes, preferentially passing on the genotypes associated with the betteradapted phenotypes. Ex: Shorter pregnancies, babytalk. Genetic Inheritance Humans reproduce through sexual reproduction. Conception is the fusing of ovum and sperm to form a zygote. Chromosome Ovum contains 23 Sperm contains 23 Zygote contains 46 or 23 pairs A gene is a segment of a chromosome. A chromosome is a molecule of DNA. The DNA molecule takes the form of two long, connected strands that spiral around each other. Two types of Cells Germ Cell: Each with only 23 chromosomes Consist of Sperm and Ova Formed through meiosis Somatic Cells: Each with 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs All cells of the body, except sperm and ova Formed through mitosis Sex Determination Sex is determined by the chromosome of the 23rd pair. Females have to XX. Males have an X and an Y (XY). Laws of Genetic Inheritance Allele: The specific form of a gene. Homozygous for a trait: A person who inherits the same form of a gene (the same allele) from both parents. Heterozygous for a trait: A person who inherits different alleles. When a person is heterozygous for a particular trait, three outcomes are possible: 1. One allele is dominant and the other is recessive. 2. The person expresses characteristics intermediates between those associated with each allele. 3. The alleles are codominant. Mutations and Genetic Abnormalities Mutations An error in the process of gene replication that results in a charge in the molecular structure of the DNA. Characteristics: Can be passed on to the next generation if they occur in germ cells. Can add new genes to the gene pool. Is important source of variation of genotypes. Most are harmful or even lethal, not adaptive. Causes of genetic abnormalities Genes inherited through normal processes of inheritance. PKU From a breakdown in the process of genetic transmission affecting the chromosomes in the germ cell. Down syndrome and klinefelter’s syndrome. Plasticity of the Trait The extent to which the genotype determines any specific phenotypic trait depends on the plasticity of the trait. Traits with high plasticity=easily influenced by the environment Traits with little plasticity=develop in much the same way regardless of the environment Ex:language acquisition Heritability The amount of phenotypic variation on a trait in a given population that is due to genetic differences. Estimate of heritability is assessed through several types of kinship studies. Family Study Twin Study Adoption Study The case of twins Monozygotic (MZ) twins: one zygote (fertilized egg) that splits into two; results in identical twins. Dizygotic (DZ) twins: two separate zygotes; results in fraternal twins; no different that regular siblings. Sex Determination: chromosome 23 determines gender. XX:female XY:male Genotype, Phenotypes, and Human Behavior Phenomena of Niche Construction: Refers to how behavior, activities, and choices of individuals actively shape and modify the environment in which they live. Ex: unusually quiet infants. Ecological Inheritance: Refers to how niche construction can result in modified environments that affect the development of subsequent generations. Ex: moving from one neighborhood to another. III. The Coevolution of Culture and Biology Culture and biology interact in the process of coevolution, whereby cultural factors influence the likelihood that people with certain genetically influenced mental and physical traits will survive and reproduce. Ex: lactose intolerance and sicklecell anemia. IV. Retracing the Laetoli Footprints The complex interplay of culture and biology ensures that both heritages are passed on to subsequent generations and that both continue to evolve.