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Ch 10 cultural anthropology notes

by: Carly Rothert

Ch 10 cultural anthropology notes Anth 2800

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Language > Anth 2800 > Ch 10 cultural anthropology notes
Carly Rothert
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About this Document

these notes cover everything in chapter 10 of the culture counts textbook. I used the notes and got a 12/12 on the quiz.
Cultural Anthropology
Shahna Arps
Class Notes
Cultural Anthropology, Anthropology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Rothert on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 2800 at University of Toledo taught by Shahna Arps in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Anthropology Ch. 10 Notes hijra: an alternative gender role in india conceptualized as neither man nor woman  man plus woman  man with genitals cut off gender roles: the cultural expectations of men and women in a particular society, including the  division of labor ***different societies throughout the world where cultural support is given to individuals who  transcend or bridge the differences between male and female   mahu of polynesia  xanith of oman on the saudia arabian peninsula  two­spirit found in many native american tribes  bakla of the philippines  waria of indonesia  yan daudu of nigeria o mostly involve males that adopt women’s work dress, and behavior ***also women can adopt male roles ­­­all cultures acknowledges the biological difference between male and female, there is great  cultural variety in the number of sexes and genders a society constructs and how sex and  gender are defined SEX AND GENDER AS CULTURAL CONSTRUCTIONS  sex: the biological difference between male and female  gender: a cultural construction that makes biological and physical differences into  socially meaningful categories  all cultures recognize a difference between males and females but cultures differ in the  meanings attached to these categories  gender and sex are not limited to masculine and feminine  gender and gender relations are among the basic building blocks of culture and society,  central to social relations of power; individual and group identities; formation of kinship  and other groups; and attribution of meaning and value  different concepts of masculine and feminine and different genders appear in different  cultures  Margaret Mead­­­ essential in developing the now central anthropological principle that  gender is a cultural construction  gender ideology: the totality of ideas about sex, gender, the natures of men and  women, including their sexuality, and the relations between the genders CREATIVE EXPRESSIONS OF GENDER: DEEP PLAY AND MASCULINE IDENTITY  every society includes many and varied cultural dimensions of gender ideology and  gender identity  certain games, like football, reinforce culturally constructed gender identities  deep play: activities that heighten emotions, display compelling aspects of social  structure and culture, and reinforce culturally constructed gender identities o bullfighting is an example  bull is the aggressive male and the matador is skilled, self­controlled, and  calm  cultural construction of gender: the idea that gender characteristics are the result of  historical, economic CULTURAL VARIATION IN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR  what is erotic in some cultures is considered disgusting in others  sexual partners differ in different cultures o homosexuals are sometimes normal  Patterned and regulated by culture: o ages at which sexual response is believed to begin and end o the ways in which people make themselves attractive o the importance of sexxual activity in human life o variation according to gender  GENDER IDEOLOGY AND WOMEN'S SEXUALITY o most societies view males and females as different in ideas about sexuality o some societies see woman as more sexually voracious and use this notion to  justify men's control of women  rape, beatings, suicide, female circumcision, chinese foot binding,  anorexia  o in some societies male control of female sexuality is central to notions of honor  and shame and thus cultural understandings of masculinity o the varying practices regarding female modesty are shaped by history, culture,  religious politics, and the degree of male dominance in a society o where they are being oppressed, women will stand up to it MALE AND FEMALE RITES OF PASSAGE  in all cultures the role and expectations of individuals change at different points in life,  and the individual must learn what is necessary for these new role  rite of passage: a ritual that moves an individual from one social status to another o public ceremony  male rites of passage have important psychological and sociological function  usually involve an extended period of time during which boys are separated from the  larger society o often include painful practices such as scarification or circumcision that  symbolize the formal transition from child to adult o could also include difficult and dangerous tasks­­­killing a large animal  male rites of passage have been interpreted as a means of psychologically separating  boys from identification with their mothers  manhoods puzzle: the question of why manhood needs to be proved, why it is  regarded as so uncertain or precarious that manhood requires trials of skill, endurance,  or special rituals  FEMALE RITES OF PASSAGE o more widespread than male rites o generally less spectacular and intense o often performed at menarche (first menstruation) o sometimes she is the center of attention and other times she is isolated from  society o some rituals are elaborate and take years to perform while others are performed  with little ceremony o used to publically announce a girl's status change o teach girls what they need to know to be effective adults o channels sexuality into adult reproduction o emphasize the connections between beauty, sexuality, and power POWER AND PRESTIGE: GENDER STRATIFICATION  gender stratification: the ways in which gendered activities and attributes are  differentially valued and related to the distribution of resources, prestige, and power in a  society o long debated whether male dominance is universal  private/public dichotomy: a gender system in which women’s status is lowered by their almost exclusive cultural identification with the home and children, whereas men are  identified with public, prestigious, economic, and political roles o only characterized the highly gender­stratified 19th century capitalist societies o doesn’t apply to smaller­scale non westernized societies o theory became more relevant with globalization  Peggy Sanday said the male dominance was not universal but occurred in connection  with ecological stress and warfare: where the survival of the group rests more on male  actions, such as warfare, women accept male dominance for the sake of social and  cultural survival  GENDER RELATIONS: COMPLEX AND VARIABLE o patriarchy: a male­dominated society in which most important public and private power is held by men o anthropologists have moved from the question of whether male dominance is  universal to explanations of gender stratification in particular societies  led to closer examination of the sexual division of labor in different types  of societies and an examination of the informal as well as formal bases of  female power o GENDER RELATIONS IN FORAGING SOCIETIES  females help contribute to food supply  some social roles are determined by individual ability, training, and  personality rather than gender  women can be heads of clans and tribes  gender egalitarianism is a core tlingit cultural value  unlike many non­western societies where european contact diminished  women’s economic roles and influence, modernization expanded tlingit  women's roles  o GENDER RELATIONS IN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES  generally women have more autonomy and power in egalitarian foraging  societies than in horticultural, pastoral, or agricultural societies  a high degree of sex segregation, paralleled by the importance of males  in ritual, is associated with male dominance in some horticultural societies  solidarity of women is usually not formalized in cults or associations but is based on the cooperation of domestic life and strong interpersonal bonds  among female kin  consanguineal tie: economic and emotional ties between generations  conjugal tie: economic and emotional tie between spouses  women's roles declined with modernization (cash crops)  sexual segregation increased o GENDER RELATIONS IN PASTORAL AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES  tend to be male dominated  women's status depends on the degree to which the society combines  herding with cultivation, its specific historical situation, and the diffusion of cultural ideas, such as islam  women's contribution to the food supply is small  male dominance is somewhat based on the strength needed to handle  large animals  men predominantly own and have control over the disposition of livestock  men and women may jointly hold animals based on kinship  with the use of plows the use of female contribution in food production  drops drastically  women's status in modern stratified societies varies greatly and is  affected by economic development  USING ANTHROPOLOGY: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOR  WOMEN o foreign aid and development programs often fail because they increase male  productivity but neglect the economic role of women  may increase gender inequality o genders are becoming more flexible o there is still stereotyping and discrimination of women in professional settings


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