Ch 10 cultural anthropology notes
Ch 10 cultural anthropology notes Anth 2800
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
Popular in Language
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Rothert on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 2800 at University of Toledo taught by Shahna Arps in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
Reviews for Ch 10 cultural anthropology notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/24/16
Anthropology Ch. 10 Notes hijra: an alternative gender role in india conceptualized as neither man nor woman man plus woman man with genitals cut off gender roles: the cultural expectations of men and women in a particular society, including the division of labor ***different societies throughout the world where cultural support is given to individuals who transcend or bridge the differences between male and female mahu of polynesia xanith of oman on the saudia arabian peninsula twospirit found in many native american tribes bakla of the philippines waria of indonesia yan daudu of nigeria o mostly involve males that adopt women’s work dress, and behavior ***also women can adopt male roles all cultures acknowledges the biological difference between male and female, there is great cultural variety in the number of sexes and genders a society constructs and how sex and gender are defined SEX AND GENDER AS CULTURAL CONSTRUCTIONS sex: the biological difference between male and female gender: a cultural construction that makes biological and physical differences into socially meaningful categories all cultures recognize a difference between males and females but cultures differ in the meanings attached to these categories gender and sex are not limited to masculine and feminine gender and gender relations are among the basic building blocks of culture and society, central to social relations of power; individual and group identities; formation of kinship and other groups; and attribution of meaning and value different concepts of masculine and feminine and different genders appear in different cultures Margaret Mead essential in developing the now central anthropological principle that gender is a cultural construction gender ideology: the totality of ideas about sex, gender, the natures of men and women, including their sexuality, and the relations between the genders CREATIVE EXPRESSIONS OF GENDER: DEEP PLAY AND MASCULINE IDENTITY every society includes many and varied cultural dimensions of gender ideology and gender identity certain games, like football, reinforce culturally constructed gender identities deep play: activities that heighten emotions, display compelling aspects of social structure and culture, and reinforce culturally constructed gender identities o bullfighting is an example bull is the aggressive male and the matador is skilled, selfcontrolled, and calm cultural construction of gender: the idea that gender characteristics are the result of historical, economic CULTURAL VARIATION IN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR what is erotic in some cultures is considered disgusting in others sexual partners differ in different cultures o homosexuals are sometimes normal Patterned and regulated by culture: o ages at which sexual response is believed to begin and end o the ways in which people make themselves attractive o the importance of sexxual activity in human life o variation according to gender GENDER IDEOLOGY AND WOMEN'S SEXUALITY o most societies view males and females as different in ideas about sexuality o some societies see woman as more sexually voracious and use this notion to justify men's control of women rape, beatings, suicide, female circumcision, chinese foot binding, anorexia o in some societies male control of female sexuality is central to notions of honor and shame and thus cultural understandings of masculinity o the varying practices regarding female modesty are shaped by history, culture, religious politics, and the degree of male dominance in a society o where they are being oppressed, women will stand up to it MALE AND FEMALE RITES OF PASSAGE in all cultures the role and expectations of individuals change at different points in life, and the individual must learn what is necessary for these new role rite of passage: a ritual that moves an individual from one social status to another o public ceremony male rites of passage have important psychological and sociological function usually involve an extended period of time during which boys are separated from the larger society o often include painful practices such as scarification or circumcision that symbolize the formal transition from child to adult o could also include difficult and dangerous taskskilling a large animal male rites of passage have been interpreted as a means of psychologically separating boys from identification with their mothers manhoods puzzle: the question of why manhood needs to be proved, why it is regarded as so uncertain or precarious that manhood requires trials of skill, endurance, or special rituals FEMALE RITES OF PASSAGE o more widespread than male rites o generally less spectacular and intense o often performed at menarche (first menstruation) o sometimes she is the center of attention and other times she is isolated from society o some rituals are elaborate and take years to perform while others are performed with little ceremony o used to publically announce a girl's status change o teach girls what they need to know to be effective adults o channels sexuality into adult reproduction o emphasize the connections between beauty, sexuality, and power POWER AND PRESTIGE: GENDER STRATIFICATION gender stratification: the ways in which gendered activities and attributes are differentially valued and related to the distribution of resources, prestige, and power in a society o long debated whether male dominance is universal private/public dichotomy: a gender system in which women’s status is lowered by their almost exclusive cultural identification with the home and children, whereas men are identified with public, prestigious, economic, and political roles o only characterized the highly genderstratified 19th century capitalist societies o doesn’t apply to smallerscale non westernized societies o theory became more relevant with globalization Peggy Sanday said the male dominance was not universal but occurred in connection with ecological stress and warfare: where the survival of the group rests more on male actions, such as warfare, women accept male dominance for the sake of social and cultural survival GENDER RELATIONS: COMPLEX AND VARIABLE o patriarchy: a maledominated society in which most important public and private power is held by men o anthropologists have moved from the question of whether male dominance is universal to explanations of gender stratification in particular societies led to closer examination of the sexual division of labor in different types of societies and an examination of the informal as well as formal bases of female power o GENDER RELATIONS IN FORAGING SOCIETIES females help contribute to food supply some social roles are determined by individual ability, training, and personality rather than gender women can be heads of clans and tribes gender egalitarianism is a core tlingit cultural value unlike many nonwestern societies where european contact diminished women’s economic roles and influence, modernization expanded tlingit women's roles o GENDER RELATIONS IN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES generally women have more autonomy and power in egalitarian foraging societies than in horticultural, pastoral, or agricultural societies a high degree of sex segregation, paralleled by the importance of males in ritual, is associated with male dominance in some horticultural societies solidarity of women is usually not formalized in cults or associations but is based on the cooperation of domestic life and strong interpersonal bonds among female kin consanguineal tie: economic and emotional ties between generations conjugal tie: economic and emotional tie between spouses women's roles declined with modernization (cash crops) sexual segregation increased o GENDER RELATIONS IN PASTORAL AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES tend to be male dominated women's status depends on the degree to which the society combines herding with cultivation, its specific historical situation, and the diffusion of cultural ideas, such as islam women's contribution to the food supply is small male dominance is somewhat based on the strength needed to handle large animals men predominantly own and have control over the disposition of livestock men and women may jointly hold animals based on kinship with the use of plows the use of female contribution in food production drops drastically women's status in modern stratified societies varies greatly and is affected by economic development USING ANTHROPOLOGY: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOR WOMEN o foreign aid and development programs often fail because they increase male productivity but neglect the economic role of women may increase gender inequality o genders are becoming more flexible o there is still stereotyping and discrimination of women in professional settings
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'