Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU
Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Chapter 14 Mainstream Rock in the Seventies I Mainstream rock after 1974 A Rock becomes extremely diverse 7 number of different popular styles 1 Not just division of white music black music 2 Or rocldfolk B Partly associated with essential change in the nature of rock as a business 1 Becoming more business oriented 2 Less about spontaneity more about nding mainstream audience 3 Something of a corporate takeover of industry a By larger conglomerations not associated with music i Todd Rungren companies interested in money producing enterprises ii Examples Gulf and Western Time magazine b Brought about by dramatic increase in record sales Suggested clip from Time Life History afRack andRall series episode 8 19705 Have aNice Decade on success of Framptan CamesAlive and Rumors which set the stage for the megaplatinum artists of that decade 4 Recording Industry Association of America RIAA awards for sales a In 1958 instituted presentation of gold record for sale of 500000 copies b By 1976 needed to create platinum record for sale of 1000000 copies c In 1983 official recognition of multiplatinum category for sales of2 million and up i Colloquially used earlier ii Used to describe high grossing acts d Now a diamond record 7 sales of 10000000 copies i Some examples aa Michael Jackson Thriller bb Eagles Greatest Hits Vol 1 cc Led Zeppelin IV Zoso ii Rare for new releases 5 Reasons for increased sales a Economy doing well b Rock is the mainstream c Major labels dominating business again d Crossmarketing i Tours used to promote records as in the beginning ii Arena tours e New formats make it easier to access recordings wherever they are i Four and Eight track tapes installed as options in planes autos in mid 1960s ii Audio cassettes aa Boom box 7 large portable stereos with cassette and radio bb Walkman 1979 7 personal cassette player f AOR exposes radio listeners to wider variety of music not just top 40 hits g Record companies aggressively promote focus artists IV Mainstream rock A Big tent including 1 Many glam rock acts 2 Singersongwriters like Paul Simon Billy Joel 3 Pop rock 7 pop so entangled with rock they become inseparable a Groups like the Beatles can t be called one or the other b Ditto for lots of others like i Elton John ii Wings iii Rod Stewart iv Fleetwood Mac 4 Hard rock aka Classic rock a Continuation of style of Rolling Stones Led Zeppelin Who i All still touring and charting in 70s ii Some ofbest selling acts esp Zep b Lots of other acts in similar vein though less in uenced by blues i Steve Miller Band ii Bachman Turner Overdrive iii Aerosmith iv Styx v REO Speedwagon c General characteristics i Standard rock setup 7 2 guitars bass drums keyboard ii Riffdriven songs with lyrics that speak to common experience iii Aggressive timekeeping iv Flavored at times by country blues gospel and art rock 5 Fusions a Country rock b Jazz rock fusion c Blueeyed soul i White musicians performing in soul style ii Some examples aa Hall and Oates bb Steely Dan cc Dr John iii Generally embraced by black soul audiences B In some ways carefully controlled 1 Slickly produced 7 high production values 2 Few truly fringe artists C But within mainstream room for great deal of diversity III Elton John Reg Dwight A Another musician who started in a British RampB band Bluesology B Singersongwriter in late 1960s but limited success 1 Finds niche after pairing with lyricist Bernie Taupin 2 Allows John to focus on music performing a Accompanies self on piano b In 1970s outrageous stage presence i Elaborate out ts aa including Donald Duck costume boas and sequins bb Incredible variety of wild glasses ii Extroverted performing style iii Spoof on style of Liberace C Characteristics D Example Tiny Dancer see listening guide 1 Lyric dominates a Dramatic filmlike vignettes b Impersonal portrait though singer enters story in transition verse c Trivia fact Tiny Dancer iMaxine Feibelmann was Bernie Taupin s girlfriend later his wife 2 Introduction a Piano stating first phrase of melody b Introduces syncopated nature of melody 3 Versetransitionchorus form a Verses in AABA form b Musical contrasts define each section c Repeated returns to intro separate verses 4 End weighting through gradual addition of instruments new tone colors 5 Subtle sixteenbeat rhythmic foundation implied by piano strings IV Queen A Formed in 1970 by Freddie Mercury and Brian May 1 Known for stylistic diversity and complex arrangements a Frequent use of orchestral instruments b As well as complex vocal harmonies 2 Elaborate stage performances 7 elements of glam rock B Example Bohemian Rhapsody 1 At the time most elaborate and expensive single supplanting Good Vibrations a Recording took 3 weeks and four different studios b 200 separate overdubs required i At time only 24 track mixers ii Had to bounce down reduce 24 separate tracks to one single track eight separate times 2 Rare example of rock song with several tempo style changes 3 Parody of opera a Musical irony music and lyrics don t match b Mocks several operatic conventions and compositional styles 4 Conventional rock instrumentation plus piano timpani gong 5 Unusual form a Six separate sections with no chorus b Intro i A capella 4 part harmony a Similarities to doowop b All voices are Freddy Mercury ii Piano enters approximately 015 mirrors vocal line iii 4 part harmony accompanies lead vocal line c More melodic piano part introduces new section d Section A 7 ballad style 7 2 verses i Standard piano accompaniment to solo vocal line a Foreshadows vocal melody b Fills based on melodic line ii Melody AABA form iii Just before B section aa drums enter bb Modulation to higher key iv Drops out in nal A v Second verse aa As before but guitar enters just prior to B bb Continues through rest of verse cc Ends with key change prior to e Section B Guitar solo i Based on melody of section A ii Serves as bridge to f Section C 7 Opera 7 also 2 verses i Short piano chords on beat ii Parody of comic songs in light opera iii Fast harmonic motion iv Send a bolt of lightning 7 parody of operas of Richard Wagner v Galileo s 7 alone took 3 weeks vi Final screeching high note a jab at operatic sopranos g Section D 7 hard rock style i Driven by guitar riff ii Solid rock rhythms 8 beat style beat and accented backbeat iii New melody iv Hard rock vocal style h Outro i Return to style and tempo of intro ii Ends with a capella vocals ofbeginning V Fleetwood Mac A Started in England in 1966 as blues rock band 1 Lead guitarist Peter Green considered a rival of Clapton 2 Both he and Jeremy Spencer left group in early 1970s 3 Others Mick Fleetwood John and Christine McVie moved to California 4 Married couple Lindsey Buckingham and Stevie Nicks joined in 1975 B Eponymous first album with new lineup goes to 1 in US C Follow up 7Rumors 7 one of the rst multiplatinum albums of mid 70s 1 Both couples in band in process of divorce as was Fleetwood 2 Personal drama evident in songs D Example Dreams 1 Written by Stevie Nicks 2 Hard rock timekeeping and accented backbeats 3 Simple harmonies a Christine McVie keyboards 7 three chords and one note in left hand b Bass plays roots of chords c Lack of harmonic drive mirrors sense of lyrics 4 Occasional guitar riffs lls with wah wah pedal and distortion 5 Versetransition chorus form 6 Thin texture a Increases in transition b Thickest in chorus i Vocal ha1monies ii More active bass iii Congas added iv More frequent guitar lls VI Fusions A Country rock 1 Mixture of country rock pop and blues in uences 2 Some country rock merely rock bands playing country songs a The Byrds i Interest in exploring country after Gram Parsons joins ii Sweethearts of the Rodeo 1968 first country rock LP iii Example Pretty Boy Floyd but any track ne b Example The Band The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down 3 Others strike more of a balance 4 The Eagles Glen Frey Don Henley Bernie Leadon Randy Meisner Don Felder a Started as backup band for singer Linda Ronstadt b Combined country rock with slick pop production laid back feel c Extremely popular in 1970s i Eagles Greatest Hits Vol 1 second best selling LP of all times ii 23 million copies to date d Biggest hit 7 Hotel California e Example Take It Easy 7 more typical of style in 1970s i Country in uence is unmistakable ii Tight vocal harmonies in uenced by Byrds Everly Brothers iii Folk associations especially Dylan also clear iv Harmonically simple v Rhythmically straightforward f Much of impact depends on lyrics melodic interest B Jazz rock fusion or jazz fusion 1 Two types of j azz rock fusion 2 From thejazz side a Several jazz artists attempt to add rock characteristics to modern jazz iStraight eighth notes iiE1ectr0nic keyboards electric guitar bass iiiRepetitive bass lines ivElectronic effects and postproduction b Most successful i Herbie Hancock ii Miles Davis aa True jazz legend bb Fusion experiments met with mixed results cc Album Bitches Brew 1969 is the primary testament of jazzrock fusion iii Weather Report iv Mahavishnu orchestra 3 From the rock side a Rock bands in uenced by jazz rhythmic and harmonic sophistication b Band members often have jazz experience c Examples i Blood Sweat and Tears ii Chicago iii Steely Dan 4 Chicago b Example Saturday in the Park i Opens with syncopated piano riff ii Based on chord progression for Heart and Soul aa Old Tin Pan Alley standard bb Favorite of jazz musicians since 1930s 5 Steely Dan a Not a rock band in the traditional sense i critics have called it concept and nonband ii Outlet for Walter Becker and Donald Fagan only permanent members aa jazz fans with a warped sense of humor bb like beat poetry absurdist literature and songwriting iii Permanent band for a few years ivDissolved in favor of using studio musicians for albums b Sound is rooted injazz but also in uenced by pop RampB classical folk c Lyrics are poetic but like Dylan meaning not always clear i Most sarcastic filled with obscure references ii postfolk rock for the intellectual set iii Often something vaguely sinister d Arrangements loaded with complicated jazz harmonies meters e Melodies hooky enough for pop radio f Example Peg i Studio band largely composed of jazz rock musicians including Larry Carlton and Wayne Shorter ii Backing vocals by Michael McDonald of Doobie Brothers iii Intro aa Keyboard riff reminiscent of angular lines of bebop Compare to Dizzy Gillespie Salt Peanuts bb Evokes disco in quavery electronic sounds produced by synthesizer cc and 16 beat style beat provided by delicate guitar line V Verse aa Short melodic phrases concluded by guitar or riff from intro bb Appropriate since harmonies are reworked 12bar blues progression vi Chorus sweetened by background vocals vii Thick texture aa Electric piano bb Synthesizer cc Clavinet electronic clavichord dd 16 beat style beat guitar line ee Drums ff background vocals vii Complicated rhythmic interactions between all parts viii Harmonic variety typical of jazz ix Lyrics almost super uous 5 Blood Sweat and Tears Spinning Wheel a Ensemble iv Lead vocalist David Clayton v Rhythm section 7 drums piano organ guitar bass vi Horn section b Sophisticated jazz harmonies c Jazzin uenced horn riffs d Juxtaposed with syncopated RampB riffs e Short intro crescendo increase in volume horns play one measure of l6beat style beat A What goes up A You got no money B Extensive contrasting sectionshort bridge A Someone is waiting A 12 verse as bridge piano solo C solo section Improvisation on melody by trumpet 2x through chord changes plus extension A Someone s waiting D outro Mixed meter stop time alternating with calliopelike improvisation II Punk A Punk is a response to the above but 1 But really just a continuation of garage bands like Kingsmen 2 Combined with aggressive in your face attitude that rejected corporate image of most rock of the day 3 Either rebellion against basically all rock after early 1960s or extension of hard rock to its ultimate extreme B First surfaces in NYC in 197475 at club called CBGB OMFUG 1 Country Blue Grass Blues and Other Music for Urban Gourmandizers 7 2 basically eclectic bar where any and all music was welcome C First punk band debatable but most give title to New York Dolls 1 Five piece band modeled after English glam rockers T Rex Bowie 2 Regularly performed in drag had the attitude and showmanship 3 BUT 7 no one in the band was a skilled musician a BUT 7 they liked to play b There was a place for them to do so c So 7 they did doityourself attitude D The Ramones exemplify sound of punk 1 Like a surfband on speed 2 Reduction of all rock to most basic common denominator a Simple and repetitive music i Rejection of art rock pretension ii the complete dominance of the riff b Saturated eight beat 7 rock beat in every instrument and pretty much the ONLY thing going on in most of the parts c Extremely fast tempos d Deliberate rejection of all overt moves to court commercial popularity i Lyrics often gross inane or offensive or unintelligible ii Image often bizzare obnoxious or offensive iii Talent seen as optional passion essential 3 Listen to Blitzkrieg Bop E Even though weren t formed until almost a year later Sex Pistols are band most people associate with punk 1 Certainly most notorious 2 Ramones played fast hard music but no one was named Johnny Rotten or Sid Vicious 3 Added to characteristics of NY Dolls and Ramones a Nihilistic attitude nothing matters and its all bad anyway b Gross antics and stage behavior copped from Iggy Pop and the Stooges c Screamed monotonous lyrics 4 Ironically much of their behavior lyric content carefully designed to offend as surely as pop rock was designed not to a Ex God Save The Queen b Immediately banned by BBC caused a big scandal c Got tons of publicity d Shot their album Never Mind the Bollocks Here Come The Sex Pistols to the top of the charts in the UK 7 first successful punk album F Punk burned itself out within a few years 1 Hard to be that continually pissed off especially when you re starting to make it 2 When Sex Pistols started to hit big Johnny Rotten walked away in disgust 3 Had also by then sparked trends in fashion social behavior modeled after music G Energy drive that punk brought back to rock in uenced almost all bands that came after 1 Arguably most in uential of all movements in rock 2 Especially if duration is factored in H Bands that took punk as a primary in uence and then fused with other rock in uences 7 New Wave III New Wave A Another broad category B Punk mixed with nearly everything except country creates wide variety of styles C Energy riffbasis of punk seemed to fuse particularly well with reggae 1 Political and social protest of punk 2 Rhythmic activity of reggae especially accented afterbeats 3 Examples 7 Clash Elvis Costello D Punk and pop seems like unholy combo but actually worked 1 Back to basics feel of punk revitalized tired pop 2 Bright rhythmic feel of pop worked well with dominant eightbeat rhythm 3 Both employed stripped down simple textures 4 Examples 7 B52s Elvis Costello Blondie lots more E Punk art rock 1 Another unlikely combination 2 Basic stripped down textures of punk provided canvas for basically anything 3 Beattype poetry world music in uences electronic additions 4 Examples Patti Smith Devo Talking Heads a If time play Psycho Killer b Thin transparent texture c Eight beat very much present 7 simple continuous rhythmic pulse d As is somewhat the behind the beat feel of reggae e Definitely not pop lyrics 7 a little creepy and psycho f Nearly monotone lyric delivery 111 The Future of Rock A Number of hard rock groups of late 1970s returning to core values of rock 1 Solid rock timekeeping 2 Standard rock ensembles 3 Abandonment of pretensions of mainstream 1970s rock a Excessive use of electronic technology b Sprawling multisectional forms c In uence of progressive or art rock d Lack of lyric depth B Bruce Springsteen 1 Style encapsulates nearly every type of rock and roll a Early rock and roll b RampB and electric blues artists like Bo Diddley John Lee Hooker c Folk and folk rock d Garage rock e Blues rock f Country rock g Latin rock 2 One of rock s finest lyricists 3 Background a Began fronting garage and blues rock bands in mid l960searly 70s b Early 1970s worked as a singersongwriter in coffee houses in Greenwich Village c Returned to New Jersey and joined local E Street Band d Signed to three LP deal with Columbia records i First two sold modestly ii Built audience through touring iii Gained reputation as exciting live band playing straight ahead rock and roll of type not heard in mainstream rock e Last chance 7Born to Run 7 finally charted 4 Style a Vocal style i Mostly raspy blues and folk rock vocals ii Though can invoke gospel and soul when called for by lyrics iii Solid middle range b Riffbased guitar in the Chuck Berry Keith Richards i Riffs frequently long ii Often different for verse and chorus c Frequently works with E Street Band i Similar to Booker T and the MGs style ii Horn punctuation riffs d Heavy rock timekeeping unless performing in folk style e Great hooks 7 catchy but don t seem manufactured f Invokes number of stylistic in uences based on lyric content g Great poetic imagery abundant use of similes and metaphors 4 Example Born to Run a Lyrics encapsulate spirit of trying to break away i Doesn t say from what ii More universal appeal b Unusual form 7 modified AABA c Introduction i Assertive eight beat rock rhythm in bass keyboard toms aa Preceded by snare fill bb Snare then emphasizes backbeat ii Long guitar riff doubled by glockenspiel chime sound aa Marching band instrument like a Vibraphone bb Not synthesized d Long A section concluding with title phrase i Two melodic phrases each repeated aa First i Mumbled lyrics in low range ii Single long lyric phrase iii Accompaniment rhythm section with rock beat bb Second guitar glockenspiel arpeggios added i Short rhyming poetic ideas ii Ooh sustained keyboard chord precedes repeat iii Higher vocal range iv Faster harmonic rhythm V Leads directly into ii First melodic phrase in higher register with title phrase e Repeat of introduction serves as transition to f Second A section i As above sustained keyboard chords ii Doesn t conclude with title phrase g Tenor saxophone solo in early rock and roll style h Riff leads into i B section 7 new melodic idea i stated twice ii each text phrase at successively higher pitch iii Less aggressive timekeeping aa Implied not stated bb Soft rim shots on backbeat iv Accompaniment guitar and glockenspiel arpeggios iv Second statement of melody aa Strings and sustained notes on tenor sax bb More aggressive vocals j Interlude i Saxophone riff ii Double time Dick Dale in uenced guitar iii Complex harmonies iv Sustained chord v Yelled l 2 3 4 signals repeat of k A section in higher key i Accompaniment as in second A section with sustained notes in saxophone ii Less aggressive timekeeping l Vamp to end over music from intro C Aerosmith 1 Hard rock band in uenced by Rolling Stones Led Zeppelin a High vocal range of Steve Perry clearly modeled on Robert Plant b Extensive use of power chords pentatonic scales c Distorted guitar and bass d Loud volume e Demonstration of in uence compare opening of Black Dog and Walk this Way 2 Successful career as mainstream hard rock act in 70s but band derailed by substance abuse 3 Career restarted when early rappers RunDMC cover Walk this Way a began as a rap over the opening riff of the Aerosmith classic b Soon developed into a rapped cover version of the song c Producer Rick Rubin suggested that RunDMC bring Joe Perry and Steven Tyler into the studio to record with the group d Song served as bridge between heavy metal and rap e As well as RampB and rock 4 Example Walk This Way a Aggressive rock timekeeping b Long snarling guitar riff in l6beat style beat i in uenced by funk horn lines ii Compare to opening of Superstition c Versechorus form i Verse delivered in rapid re accented style ii Chorus in more traditional hard rock style
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