Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU (2)
Class Note for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU (2)
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Date Created: 02/06/15
MUSC 309 Lecture 2 Style basics the musical background of rock I Rock de nitions A What is it 1 rock and roll 7 musically de nable style 2 rock 7 larger de nition a music in uenced by rock and roll b subgenres c fusions d is it white music B Rock V pop II Rock basics 7 It s Only Rock and Roll A Rhythm 1 Time aspect of music is one of most important characteristics 2Rhythm a Orderly movement of music in time b Controls all relationships in music c Organized in terms ofa basic unit oflength beat 3 Beat a Regular pulse heard in most types of music b In most music beats heard in groups of 2 3 4 etc 4 Bars a In Classical music rst beat of every bar accented b Not always so in blues rock i Accent on second in group oftwo ii Called backbeat iiii Usually brought out some way drum beat snaps claps B Form 1 Way that a piece ofmusic is organized 2 At its most basic level musical form based on principles of a Repetition b Contrast 3 Form articulated by a Lyrics 7 return change of topic etc b Changes in certain elements i Addition or subtraction of instruments voices ii ie change in texture c Change in dynamics d Alteration of some other element How elements of 4 Basic rock form versechorus 5 Chorus 7 words and music repeat 6 Verse II Style A Def 7 sum of shared features that set one group of pieces apart from others B Most commonly used to describe commonalities among artists from certain time period geographical region or who share set of in uences C What elements consider when regarding style 1 Rhythm a Beat i Accent on beat or backbeat ii How de ned b Subdivision ofbeat i Other regular rhythms in most rock that move faster than the basic beat ii Often heard in drums rhythm guitar bass iii Even divisions Or is one longer than the other c Can think of as style beat i Even rock beat ii Uneven shuf e beat iii Is the style beat heavily emphasized or only lightly almost subliminal d Tempo e Other layers of rhythm i Where riffs occur or patterns played by certain instruments clapping etc ii Often different than both beat and subdivisions of beat iii Common method of creating rhythmic interest is displacing accents from their normal metrical patterns aa ie inbetween the beats bb syncopation f Layers of activity texture i Lots going on at once thick dense ii Only a few things thin g SO Rhythm in rock and roll i Medium fast tempo ii Strong backbeat iii rock style v syncopation vi rhythmic layers 2 Melody a Melody only in voice or do other instruments play melodic ideas motives or riffs b Riffs c Hook i catchy musical or text phrase that repeats throughout song ii Grabs attention 3 Harmony a Pretty hard to hear esp when starting to listen for b Speed at which change 7 harmonic rhythm d Slow accelerates as approaches title phrase slows again after e Harmonic rhythm contributes to shape of song 5 Style in uences a Play sample of Big Joe Turner blues then Mavis Staples gospel Sinatra or other pop Hank Williams country b Play about 30 of It s Only Rock and roll c Which sounds closer 6 Dynamics a Loud as in heavy metal loud b Quiet and tranquil c Again 7 about in the middle d What is the most prominent The rhythm section provides a foundation of rhythm and harmony Drums and percussionithe heart of the rhythm section 1 Establish the tempo and meter 2 Establish the quotfeelquot ofa song 3 The drum set a Snare drum which sits on a stand between the drummer39s legs b Bass drum played by the right foot usually referred to as the quotkickquot drum c Highhat two cymbals on a foot pedal stand that allows them to be clamped together d Tomtoms mounted on the bass drum are called ride toms We Got the Beat is a good example of the difference between snare and tomtoms in the intro and final verse only drums beats one and three are played on the tomtoms the backbeat is on the snare The drums solos in Wipeout are on the oor tom e A oor tom not fixed to the drum kit it is freestanding 4 Cymbals mounted on oor stands a Ride cymbal b Crash cymbal Use Me 14 Lots of crash cymbal 5 Drummers play rhythmic patterns that incorporate the entire drum set a Highhat or ride cymbals are used for division of beats and provide a steady stream of notes b The bass kick drum and snare drum play on strong beats or syncopated points for accents c Drummers usually play one pattern for verses and a different one for bridges or choruses d Tomtoms break the pattern to lead from one section into another section C D Auxiliary percussion Maracas Bo Diddley Good Vibrations 5 D section Conga drums Oye Como Va Triangle Save the Last Dance for Me 5 Tambourine We Can Work It Out 7 Sledgehammer 17 Wood block Uncle John s Band 10 Cowbell Rock Lobster 15 intro Photograph 17 under refrain Oooh look what you ve done to this rock and roll clown Bass 1 The role of the bass is to provide the link between rhythm and harmony a Bass part is derived from kick drum rhythm pattemiquotlocking inquot with the drummer Other notes are lled in to create an interesting part c Walking bass line is common even rhythmic pattern in a scale oriented set of pitches d Emphasis is put on the root note of the chord by playing that note on the rst beat of the measure 2 Early rock music used acoustic bass 3 From the 1960s on electric bass has been the primary bass instrument a Jazz and country still continued to use acoustic bass b Electric bass is tuned the same way as acoustic bass c One octave below the four lowest strings of a guitar Electric Bass examples I Get Around 5 verse lots of reverb Dazed and Confused l 1 opening riff I Can t Turn You Loose 6 opening riff Rhythm guitar 1 Function is basically to provide full chords in rhythmic alignment with the drums and bass a Frequently the rhythm guitar enhances the snare beats while bass locks in with the kick drum b Can be either acoustic or electric guitar 2 Acoustic rhythm guitar in early rockabilly actually replaced the drum kit Keyboards 1 Keyboard instruments can also be used as rhythm instruments a Acoustic piano Rockin Pneumonia and the Boogie Woogie Flu 5 Any Little Richard songs 4 Lucille Tutti Frutti Great Balls of Fire 4 Roll Em Pete 3 b Electric piano Watermelon Man 14 Mother and Child Reunion 13 Drive My Car 7 c Organ also capable of providing a long sustaining tone if needed Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds 7 I Get Around 5 Hammond Organ I Never Loved A Man 6 d Synthesizer capable of an unimaginable array of sounds can provide long or short tones When Doves Cry 16 all keyboard sounds several weird vocal manipulations Wanna Be Startin Something 14 most of the percussive sounds including the bass are synthesized 2 Their musical function in that case is the same as rhythm guitar a Filling in notes that outline chords with a rhythmic pattern tting in with drums and bass and guitar b Organ and synthesizers can balance sustaining notes against rhythm instruments as well 3 Rhythm instrument players must be careful not to get in each other s way II Sweetening and soloing instruments A Horns and strings 1 Additional auxiliary instruments add interesting timbral elements to the music a The term used in recording is quotsweeteningquot b These tracks must be written carefully not to detract from the vocal tracks 2 These parts usually center on harmonic or melodic concepts 3 Horn sections consist of brass instruments and or saxophones a Trumpets b Trombones On Broadway 5 Interlude 7 exchanges between trumpet and electric guitar Pharoah s Dance trumpet lead Soul Man 6 trumpet riff in intro chorus punctuation in verse I Can t Turn You Loose 6 horn riff 7 trumpets and trombones c Saxophones commonly alto and tenor I Got You 7 alto sax solo Respect 6 7 alto sax solo Rockin Pneumonia and the Boogie Woogie Flu tenor sax 7 punctuation and solo The Wanderer Tenor sax Young Blood tenor sax 4 Horns add punctuation accents to the music7quotpunchquot Respect 6 Higher Love 17 V39 They are also used to emphasize chords 6 Strings ful ll the same roles as horns with less emphasis on quotpunchquot a Violins b Celli c Viola though not as common as the violin or cello Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow violins and Violas Eleanor Rigby Ch 7 violins viola and cello Save the Last Dance for Me 5 interlude 7 violins viola cello Stomp l4 violins B The instrumental solos 1 Any instrument can have a solo in a song but certain instruments are used more than others a Saxophone solo as in the Coasters quotYakety Yakquot b Guitar solo Jimi Hendrix39s quotPurple Hazequot c A piano solo Jerry Lee Lewis39s quotGreat Balls of Firequot Usually occurs past the midpoint of the song This is the focus of the song when it is happening Rhythm instruments maintain their same supporting role Solos can add excitement to the return of the vocals making them sound fresh again Elk59 III The singers A The vocals l The sung parts of a song are either the lead vocal or backup vocals 2 The lead vocal part has two functions a Provide the main melody to the song b Convey the lyrics in a convincing and effective way 3 Singers can be relatively free in relationship to the rhythm parts a That can either be successful or not7depending on the song b The highly structured aspects of the rhythm parts can present a need for contrast from the vocalist 4 Some songs have only one singer Some songs have a lead singer providing all of the lyrics and main melody and additional singers as well a The additional singers sing the quotbackupquot vocal parts b This is usually a combination of harmonic pitches and melodic material c Backup vocal parts can also be similar to the quotsweeteningquot aspects provided by strings and horns Backup vocals can have lyrics or neutral syllables quotoohquot quotdoowopquot or both a They can accompany the lead vocal at the same time the lead vocal is being sung b An example ofthis would be the Beach Boys quotSurfer Girlquot c They can function as responses to the lead vocal d As in the Beatles39 quotTwist and Shoutquot IV How it all ts together A quotSmoke on the Waterquot by Deep Purple http wwwpeoplekueduNrfschwarrockpage l l html 1 0 Form versechorus pattern Introduction four versechorus pairs the third of which is instrumental with a coda to end the song Introduction a Fourmeasure bluesin ected riff on electric guitar with overdriven ampli er distortion That is repeated c On the third pass the drums enter beginning with highhat d Snare is added on the fourth time through along with distorted organ doubling the guitar part e Bass guitar is added on the fth occurrence of the riff f Bass drum kick is added on the sixth time through the riff Verse begins with the entrance of the vocal a Drummer plays regular rapid notes on the highhat with snare and kick on strong beats Cymbals crash at the beginnings and ends of phrases c Guitar and bass play very similar parts d Organ takes the role of rhythm instrument playing chords against drums and bass Chorus has changes in what the instruments are playing a Organ guitar and bass play more sustained notes b More cymbal crashes on the drums c Vocal harmony parts are added The next verse and chorus are very similar to the rst versechorus section The third versechorus section is a guitar solo a Bass is more active during the solo b Snare becomes the busiest part of the drumsireversing the role with the highhat c The chorus is more dynamic than in previous vocalized choruses d The guitar introduction material returns at the end of the chorus section to link back to the verse B quotBye Bye Lovequot by the Everly Brothers httpwwwpeoplekueduNrfschwarrockpage5html l 5 6 7 Begins with acoustic guitar without distortion a Dual acoustic guitars playing rhythm strumming b The acoustic guitars set the rhythmic pace for the song Drums are light brushes on the snare drumino other drums or cymbals are used The song begins with the chorus a Duo vocals are the Everly Brothers39 trademark b Both sing lyrics together in rhythm c Vocals are high with little or no vibrato Electric guitar is present but subtleiproviding only accents with a lick between chord changes Bass is played on an acoustic bass Vocals are accompanied by rhythm guitars electric guitar snare and acoustic bass for the whole song Verses are sung by a solo vocalist choruses are sung by both singers V Comparison between the two songs A There are obvious differences between the styles of these two songs but they also share common aspects 1 2 P39er Singing is placed in front and in the center of the miX Rhythm instruments combine to form a coordinated accompaniment though in different ways a Deep Purple use more forceful playing on all instruments b Deep Purple use distortion on guitar and organ Everly Brothers use their acoustic guitars to drive the rhythm Both examples use solo vocals in the verses and duets in the choruses quotSmoke on the Waterquot features an instrumental solo quotBye Bye Lovequot does not B The combinations of musical elements played in the songs cause the difference between the songs 1 2 When examining rock songs it is important to listen to individual aspects as well as the overall sound It must be understood that each song has many layers that contribute to the final product The accompaniment parts must all combine to form a tapestry that supports the vocal melody
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