Note 4 for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU
Note 4 for MUSC 309 with Professor Schwartz at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
MUSC 309 History of Rock Lecture 4 Ragtime Jazz Blues and Tin Pan Alley I Ragtime A In late 1880s type of music starts to become popular in saloons brothels and other nonsavory locales 1 Played by AfricanAmerican pianists 2 Named for the ragged sound of the melody line B Characteristics 1 Emphasis on cross rhythms a Left hand establishes steady beat i walking bass aa rhythmic motion predominantly in one note value usually quarter or eighths pulse bb Characteristically stepwise motion cc pitch repetition avoided ii Stride bass aa single tone or 8ve on beats l and 3 bb full chord on beats 2 and 4 b Right hand lays highly syncopated amp complex melody line over the ragged line 2 Melody composed of2 and 4 bar gures 3 Repeated and varied to build 16 bar strain or section of the piece C Form 1 Generally 4 strains but not absolute 2 Each repeated D Primarily written style not generally improvised E Major performers 1 James P Johnson 2 Eubie Blake 3 Scott Joplin 18681917 a Don t know much about his early life b Emerges as a performer in and around St Louis c 1885 c His Maple Leaf Rag was the lst really famous published rag piece i Sold over a million copies shortly after publication in 1899 ii Defined form for many F Maple Leaf Rag 1 AA BB A CC DD form 2 Predominantly stride accompaniment G Ragtime spreads from piano to instrumental ensembles l Rhythms particularly good for dancing a Spawns a number of dance crazes like the monkey turkey trot and other animalimitation dances b And later the fox trot 2 To accommodate dancers most dance orchestras start to play in ragtime style 3 Fine line between instrumental ragtime and early jazz 4 EX Copenhagen Fletcher Henderson a Banjo and tuba alternate between bass note and backbeat 7 twobeat style beat b Such music establishes backbeat as important feature of any music that aspires to popularity c Also riffbased d Extensive syncopation II New Orleans style jazz A Starts among black musicians playing for dances B Differences from ragtime 1 Blue notes a Typical in ections in sung blues b Lowering of certain pitches by quarter tone or half tone for emotional effect c Particularly 3rd 7m or 51h degree of the scale d May be in uenced by African music 2 Solid beat not staccato amp raggy 3 Four beat style beat C Collective improvisation 1 All musicians improvising a Making up parts b Based on mutually agreed characteristics like form key 2 Role of each musician in ensemble clearly defined either a Melody instrument b Rhythm section i piano not if outdoors ii banjo or guitar iii percussion iv tuba D Featured solos with accompaniment from rest of ensemble E EX 7 Dippermouth Blues King Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band 1 l2bar blues form 2 Collective improvisation 3 Four beat style beat 4 King Oliver solo using wahwah mute 5 Second comet player Louis Armstrong F Louis Armstrong c1900l97l 1 Far and away finest and most inventive soloist in early jazz 2 Known for uid rhythms a Realized that the rhythm section was hitting the accents b soloist didn t really need to be doing it too 3 Most in uential jazz trumpeter but also great impact as a singer a Most credit with inventing scat singing vocalizing on nonsense syllables b Adds instrumental quality to jazz singing i Phrases those he d play on trumpet ii Same rhythmic qualities too 11 Swing jazz A Gradually groups playing jazz start enlarging their bands 1 Changing needs require larger ensembles 2 Large cities need for show bands dance orchestras B The music played by these new ensembles comes to be called swing 1 Based in ensemble virtuosity rather than individual soloists 2 Largely riff based 3 Frequently fast tempos 4 Swings a Fourbeat style beat b Subdivided by shuf e rhythm or uneven division of beat c Example quotIn the Moodquot Glenn Miller Orchestra i Tap foot to establish tempo ii Clap even eighth notes iii Notice Subdivisions are uneven aa First note of each pair a little longer bb Second shortened 5 Rhythm becomes steadier more uid C Important change in composition of rhythm sections 1 String bass replacing tuba 2 Guitar replacing banjo D One of most popular bands that of Count Basie 1904 1984 1 Of big bands most retained sound of New Orleans jazz 2 At his best rollicking driving beat than swings like nothing else 3 Ex Jumpin at the Woodside a fourbeat style beat b Syncopation c Complex texture 7 riffs over steady groove d Simple harmonies II The Blues A By late l9Lh century African American folk styles had coalesced into a new kind of music the blues B Recordings and important element 1 Earliest mass distribution of blues a Songs by African American female pop singers b Who adopted the blues style 2 See video B The Classic Blues a Definition i More tame in subject matter than most blues performed in the south ii Composed sheet music iii Accompaniment by small jazz combo or jazz pianist b Example Bessie Smith Back Water Blues 1927 i Bessie Empress ofthe Blues ii Most successful and esteemed of female blues singers iii Here very down home blues aa Topical subject 7 1927 ood of Mississippi river bb Tells story iv But 7 accompanied by jazz piano V 12 bar blues stanzas in aab form V Brief instrumental introduction vi 1St stanza aa Short instrumental breaks at the end of every line bb Typical ofblues cc Like call and response with instrument vii Note also aa Complex gritty vocal tone bb Blue notes cc conversational phrasing dd narrow melodic range C Eventually recording of blues expanded to include more folksy Southern blues 1 For lack of anything better to call it termed country blues a Today thought of as Delta blues b As many early performers from region of the Mississippi delta 2 Quite different than Classic blues 3 Mainly solo performer accompanying self on guitar a Almost exclusively male b Subjects hardships women sex booze studliness of performer c Purposes i Panhandling ii Dancing d Improvised not composed 4 Guitar style a Slide guitar i Played with bottle or piece of cane ii Glissando created notes between the notes or blues notes b Bent notes c Harsh tone compared to Classical guitar d Emerges largely from socalled Mississippi Delta in 1920s 5 Example Come On In My Kitchen a 12bar blues versechorus form b Singing 7 i Number of spoken phrases vocalizations dropped or slurred words ii Done for effect iii Like too emotional to say the words iv Very conversational c Guitar playing very in uential i Playing both melody and harmony ii Melodic playing mirrors vocal line iii Some slide guitar aa Metal tube or bottle neck worn on pinkie bb Creates glissandos or sliding between notes iv Robert Johnson model for most later rhythm and blues guitarists and number of English rock artists from 60s Eric Clapton Keith Richards Jimmy Page Jimmy Hendrix E Eventually country blues carried north by Blacks migrants 1 Like jazz certain style changes 2 coalesces into several more urbanoriented styles a Chicago blues b BoogieWoogie c RampB d Hokum blues 3 Hokum a Novelty blues b Bluesy delivery but not as emotional as country blues or best of Classic blues singers c Some ofthejazz bounce d Singer with piano or guitar accompaniment or both i Sometimes larger group drums bass harmonica as well ii Much more regular almost all 12bar blues or verserefrain songs e Lyrics silly or more frequently double entendres of varying degrees of subtlety f Biggest seller and one of least subtle Tight Like That 7 Tampa Red and Georgia Tom Thomas A Dorsey i Verse and refrain with weight on the refrain ii Naughty good humor iii Infectious little groove established through aa Stop time bb Walking guitar riffs cc Hear Rock around the Clock in there 5 Boogie Woogie a Piano blues b Ragtime at the next level c Shuf e rhythm in left hand which plays stride bass or walking bass d Riffs in right hand build up melody e EX Pine Top s Boogie Woogie 6 Boogie Woogie at fast tempos rock rhythms a Shuf e kind of melts into rock beat b EX Roll Em Pete 7 Pete Johnson and Big Joe Turner III Tin Pan Alley A New York center of music publishing business beginning in 1880s lProfessional songwriters employed in quotfactoriesquot publishing rms to turn out songs a Concentrated on 281h street near theatres b Song pluggers musicians who could sing and play new works for prospective customersemployed by each rm c Made such a racket that soon nicknamed TinPan alley 2 At rst writing songs in same mold as Stephen Foster Camptown Races Old Folks at Home a But incorporate whatever styles rise to popularity 3 Through vaudeville minstrel shows medicine shows Broadway reviews etc 4 Hence after ragtime becomes popular lots of songs that incorporate light syncopation and had word quotragquot in title 5 Ditto after W C Handy39s quotSt Louis Bluesquot sells a million copies B In general 1 Gently owing melodies 2 Texture homophonic melody accompaniment 3 Clear sense of the beat even when there is syncopation as well 4 Clear uncomplicated forms 5 In uence of dance rhythms 6 EX HotDiggity
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