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PSYC 10203, Chapter 7 notes

by: Maycie Tidwell

PSYC 10203, Chapter 7 notes PSYC 10213

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > Science > PSYC 10213 > PSYC 10203 Chapter 7 notes
Maycie Tidwell
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About this Document

These notes cover what we learned for chapter 7.
General Psychology
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
PSYC ch. 7 notes Learning *Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. (not genetically programmed, it is more flexible than this) Associative Learning: associating one stimulus with another. (ex: lightning with thunder)  Learning to associate a response with a consequence. Edward Thorndike: behavior changes because of its consequences- the Law Of effect. Ivan Pavlov: Classical Conditioning. He did his research using dogs. Dogs began to salivate before the food came out. Food=unconditioned stimulus (not learned, it’s a reflex) Tone/bell=neutral stimulus. *Then he started to pair the unconditioned stimulus with the neutral stimulus. He would bring the food and ring the bell at the same time. After a while the ringing of the bell causes the dog to salivate. The neutral stimulus has become a conditioned stimulus. Acquisition: the initial learning stage when you’re taking the neutral stimulus and pairing it with the unconditioned stimulus. *in order fro this to happen: 1. the neutral stimulus must happen before the unconditioned stimulus. AND 2. the time between the two must be short, so that they can make the connection between the two. Extinction: When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction. Spontaneous Recovery: After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again. Stimulus Generalization: If you change the bell sound a little, the dog will still salivate. When you generate a stimulus to a similar stimulus, to get the same reaction. Ex: no matter what test you’re about to take, you may still get test anxiety. Stimulus Discrimination: The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. Ex: maybe you only get nervous for math tests but not English tests. Pavlov’s Legacy: isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective scientific procedures. Applications of Classical Conditioning: 1. Former crack cocaine users should avoid cues (people, places) associated with previous drug use. 2. Through classical conditioning, a drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response may cause the taste of the drug to invoke the immune response. John B. Watson: used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations. He did an ad with “coffee breaks” to make people want to drink coffee every time they had a break. *He had to work in advertising because he had an affair with one of his university students. Classical Conditioning: Have respondent or reflexive behaviors. An automatic response to a certain stimulus. Operant Conditioning: involves operant behavior, a behavior that operates on the environment. producing rewarding or punishing stimuli. Voluntary behaviors. Ex: the mazes that Skinner made for rats to find food. Operant conditioning chamber: AKA Skinner box. Every time the rat pushes the lever, there will be food dispensed. Shaping: the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations. Ex: learning how to tie your shoe. Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold. 1. Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. 2. Conditioned Reinforcer: A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer. Ex: getting a paycheck. 3. Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press. 4. Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week. *When you’re trying to teach a new behavior, you should use immediate reinforcement. Ex: getting that extra sleep, or getting up to go workout. Reinforcement Schedules 1. Continuous Reinforcement: Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs. 2. Partial Reinforcement: Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though this results in slower acquisition in the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on. Ratio Schedules 1. Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. e.g., piecework pay. Ex: putting money in a vending machine to get a soda. (if you don’t get the soda you will stop putting money in and give up) Extinction happens very fast. 2. Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. This is hard to extinguish because of the unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like gambling, fishing.) Extinction does not happen very fast, because even if you don’t win at gambling, you continue putting money in and trying to win. Interval Schedules 1. Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (e.g., preparing for an exam only when the exam draws close.) studying for a test a lot more right before the day of the test.. 2. Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses. (e.g., pop quiz.) Punishment Positive Punishment (+): when doing something you stop them from doing it again. Adding something to the environment. (ex: spanking) Negative Punishment (-): Withdrawing a desirable stimulus (ex: putting a child in time out). **Sometimes punishment causes negative effects. ** Reinforcement does not have these negative effects. (works better) Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. (no reward) Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments. (reward) ex: cleaning your room so you can get ice cream). Learning by Observation: Ex: when we see someone getting rewarded for something then we are much more likely to do it. Also when you see someone get pulled over by cop, you slow down.


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