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History 106 Notes Part 1

by: Elizabeth Ward

History 106 Notes Part 1 Hist 106

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > History > Hist 106 > History 106 Notes Part 1
Elizabeth Ward

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These notes cover from the post-reconstruction era to the early 1900s
Ms. Katrina Sims
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Ward on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 106 at University of Mississippi taught by Ms. Katrina Sims in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History in History at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
1-27-16 Class Notes Reconstruction: Immediately after civil war, we see competing ideas/visions of freedom there is no one definition of freedom -Objectives: 1. identify the visions of freedom former slaves pursued in the postwar south 2. examine the postwar desires of southern whites 3. analyze the political, economic, and social implications of the era of reconstruction -Redefining freedom: • former slaves searched for family members, former slaves desired to become landowners, former slaves controlled their own labor and lives, former slaves sought economic independence, former slaves demanded inclusion in southern politics, white southerners hoped for “economic revival,” white southerners desired a “return to tradition” -Accepting Responsibility: • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandons Lands (Freedmen’s Bureau)- labor disputes, “Forty Acres and a Mule” provision, Freedmen’s schools -Extra notes: southerners needed financial assistance bc many people invested in confederate bonds • during the war • by the 1840s, the south is producing 75 percent of the WORLD’S cotton through slave labor know about crop sharing • “Forty Acres and a Mule” provision was controversial bc it was confiscated land of confederate landowners -Who had the Authority?: • Lincoln’s The Ten Percent Plan (1863)- ten percent of the 1860 electorate in southern states had to pledge allegiance to the union as long as they ratified the thirteenth amendment that abolished slavery. By 1864, only 3 states have agreed, Arkansas, Tennessee, and ??? • Andrew Johnson “Restoration” Plan (1865-1867) • Congressional Republicans’ Reconstruction Plan: Civil Rights Act (1866), Fourteenth Amendment (1866), Reconstruction Act (1867)-will place south under military rule, provisional governors, only those who didn't take up arms against union can vote, ratification of 13th and 14th amendments, Tenure of Office Act (1867) -Southern Response to Reconstruction: • Reestablishing Control- sharecropping, “Black Codes,” Klu Klux Klan • sharecropping contract would ensure that individuals were economically tied to the land while reestablishing social standing of pre-war times bc the sharecropper would have to respect the landowner to whom he was indebted • Black codes will prevent freed people from owning land KKK will use intimidation and violence to degrade free people • -Last Days of Reconstruction: • Congressional Republicans’ Reconstruction Plan: Fifteenth Amendment (1869), Enforcement Acts (1870 and 1871)-due to tremendous lynchings and outlawed terrorist societies such as KKK and gave the president the right to send in military to protect citizens Extra Notes: Blacks went from slaves, limbo, to citizens -Factors that Disrupted the Reconstruction of the South: • Depression of 1873 • Disillusionment with slow economic recovery • Civil Rights Act of 1875-Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) • The Compromise of 1877-Agreement promised removal of troops from the South; ended the “Era of Reconstruction” -Successes of Reconstruction: • Freed people established institutions • Supported the expansion of rights to blacks • Establishment of the public school system in the south but still segregates • African Americans were represented at every level of government - 18 reps & 2 senators State gains are short-lived by by 1870, there were no black state legislators. No more would • be elected until 1993 • Interracial cooperation between white Republicans in the North and South and freed people • Modernized state constitutions -Failures of Reconstruction White Southerners viewed it as an intrusion on their autonomy • • Lack of resources allocated to organizations established to assist freed people- freedman’s bureau was significantly underfunded • Unfulfilled promises of Congressional Republicans (40 acres and a mule was undermined by Johnson when he returned confiscated property to confederates) -Stalled the eon comic advancement of freed people, forced black women back into the homes of southern whites, perpetual debt, federal government attempted to address land issue with the Southern Homestead Act of 1866 but the land was not fertile • Expansion of freedoms did not include women, white or black - Frederick Douglas May 1869:When women bc they are women, are hunted down… then they will have an urgency to obtain the ballot equal to our own 2-1-16 Class Notes Economic and Territorial Expansion, 1860-1890 -Objectives: 1.Explore the stages of economic development in the West 2.Analyze the ways in which the expansion westward impacted the groups already settled in the territories (i.e. Chinese laborers, Mexican Aristocrats, and Native Americans) -Economic Development of the West • The first economic boom • mining of gold in California in the 1850s from 1860s to 1890s, in Colorado and the Dakotas • • Foreign Miner’s tax (1852) • Discovery of other metals ignited shift from the individual to corporate industry • The Second Economic Boom • The Cattle Kingdom • In 1865, Texas ranchers inaugurated the Long Drives led by Cowboys • by 1885, the boom collapsed and investors abandoned cattle raising • The Third Economic Boom • Agricultural expansion - corporate takeover of the cattle kingdom • Homestead Act (1862) • “Period of Discontentment” The Fourth economic boom • • The Transcontinental Railroad 2-3-16 Notes The Frontier -Romanticized View: • Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and the New York Tribune • Historian Frederick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) • Turner claimed settlement of the West would cultivate individualism and spread democracy; while also reinvigorating American ideals of advancement -Economic Advancement • Nurtured the hope of improving one’s position in American society • In reality, many settlers struggled to work the land, purchase machinery necessary … Mexican and Chinese Settlers in the West -Mexican Settlements • Mexican Aristocrats controlled the largest most fertile lands from Texas to California • Acquisition of California • Dissolution of Mexican Aristocrats land rights -Chinese Settlers • Participated in the gold rush before 1848 • Railroad Industry • Anti-Immigrant Organizations: National Labor Union (1866), Working Men’s Party (1878), American Protective Association (1887), Immigration Restriction League (1894) • Restrictions on Immigration: Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907) U.S.-Native Relations -US Treaties with Natives • In 1834, Congress formally designated the “Great Plains” as permanent Indian country- established territory boundaries and trade -US Reneges on Treaties with Natives • In 1842, the first wagon train headed west for Oregon from Missouri. • By 1848, pony express riders delivered main from Missouri to California • In 1861, telegraph lines connected San Francisco to the East By 1862, the federal government launched the transcontinental rail project • Dispersal of Natives -This Strategy Involved 1. Destruction of the buffalo that roamed the Great Plains 2. The relocation of Natives to land set aside in Oklahoma and the Dakotas-Reservations • In 1867, 80,000 Southern Kiowas, Comanches, and Cheyennes signed the Medicine Lodge Treaty • In 1868, Sioux relocated to land in South Dakota after signing the Fort Laramie Treaty • From 1868-1869, US engaged in battles with eh Apaches • In June 1876, Sitting Bull led resistance against General George A Custer • In 1877, General Oliver Howard effort to relocate the Nez Perce 3. Attack on Native Culture • Bureau on Indian Affairs 4. Redistribution of their lands • The Dawes Act (1887) 5. Massacre of men, women, and children • Sand Creek Massacre • Wounded Knee 2-5-16 Class Notes Vision of Freedom • In 1904, Native leaders including Sitting Bull and Chief Joseph made appeals for the extension of freedom and equal rights • Finally, citizenship was extended to Natives who lived on the reservations in 1919. • In 1924, Congress recognized the citizenry of all Natives Economic and Territorial Expansion, 1860-1890 -Objectives: 1. Explore the stages of economic development in the West 2. Analyze the ways in which the expansion westward impacted the groups already settled in the territories (i.e. Chinese laborers, Mexican Aristocrats, and Native Americans) 2-8-16 Class Notes Industrialized Freedom and Organized Labor • 1870s-1890s: The Labor Question will replace the discussion about slavery in American politics • Struggle between entrepreneurs and labor • corporations don't care about workers • workers want rights • this class between labor and capitol will lead to labor unrest: will bring to the surface the question of whether or not regulations should be implemented • Abundance of Natural Resources: cheap resources are necessary for large companies • iron ore in Pennsylvania • transcontinental railroad will help with transporting resources • oil industry will emerge- in 1870s oil is used as a lubricant for machines • large labor pool will contribute to the growth of the economy- workers will flock to urban centers (pittsburgh, chicago) for work • American economic advancement shifted from agricultural expansion to working for a wage in a factory, etc labor source will come originally from rural areas since farmers need another way to provide • form themselves after agricultural bust of 1880s . 11 million farmers will switch to wage labor • Immigrants will also greatly contribute to labor force • between 1887 and 1915, 25 million immigrants entered the US • Technological innovations such as the bessemer process (steel industry), wright brothers and the airplane, discovery of the incandescent lightbulb by Thomas Edison • Emergence of the Titans (Captains) of Industry (Robber Barons) such as James Hill, Vanderbilt, Rockefeller, etc. due to the modern corporation. vertical integration: acquiring all the businesses and resources necessary to produce • product • horizontal integration: an entrepreneur purchasing other companies • consolidation: removing rivals by acquiring them, creating monopolies • monopolies will emerge in salt, sugar, tobacco, and oil industries between 1870-1890 • by 1890s, 1% of US corporations will own 33% of manufacturing in US • allegations of corruptions: especially Rockefeller will drive out other companies by lowering prices until other companies’ sales bottom out and he will acquire them. people like Rockefeller would also make corrupt deals and bribe politicians • “Survival of the Fittest” being misunderstood and misused • perpetuation of the myth of the self-made man • robber barons are motivated by greed 2-10-16 Class Notes As the economy grew, oversight/regulation in industry became a major debate in the US • • As the labor clash begins, disruptions in productivity occur • The existence of monopolies was devastating to the southern economy • Slow growth in the south bc of: 1. lack of capital 2. lack of technological advancements 3. high rates of illiteracy 4. unfair prices that southern industries are paying • the timber industry- black and white men work side-by-side and the textile industry grows a little more slowly but is dominated by women • it is the informal economy established by women that made way for the poultry women post- world war 2 • impact of rapid economic growth on american worker: new working class culture in the US defined by: • 1. low wages (in 1870s, a skilled laborer will own 1.70 per day but unskilled will earn 0.30. By 1900s the average yearly income is between $400-500, but economists will identify that people need $600 per year to live the most standard life) • 2. by1880s, the average day laborer (most often minorities) have to deal with job insecurity • 3. machines replace people • 4. employers will slash the wages of workers in order to increase profit • 5. many workers are living in an entrepreneurial compound (live and work in the same place), so employers have even more control over the workers 6. frequency of workplace incidents increases. Between 1880-1900, 45,000 workers will die • due to workplace accidents • by 1900, 1.7 million children will enter the coal industry to work • 7. no increase in minority laborers due to discrimination. many minorities are employed as janitors or day laborers as fill-ins for regular laborers who were not present clash between capital and labor between 1880s and 1900 over low wages, working hours, • and diminished autonomy in the workplace • noble order of knights of labor - emerge in 1869 in Pennsylvania- distinctive bc they will cross gender and race barriers, organizing skilled and unskilled laborers, african americans, and women (by 1889, over 800,000 members). they will champion minimum wage, 8 hour workday, and abolishment of child labor. want children to be educated instead of work • know american federation of laborers 2-12-16 Molly McGuires • • Over 1000 workers will go on strike • laissez faire - no interruption by federal government 2-15-16 • in 1880s, 143 people/acre in New York-major lack of housing and bad living conditions • crime and poverty rates climb in slums-become ghettos-people cant leave • major illnesses spread throughout these slums/ghettos • many argue that alcohol is one of the major problems in society, causing families to lose much money and women to be abused due to alcohol. This leads to the temperance movement and, eventually, prohibition • American farmers are being exploited by industries - high fees associated with storing and transporting crops along with a 10-20% interest rate, all going to the railroad companies. Fluctuation in crop prices also negatively affected farmers • Mann vs. Illinois-ruled that the Illinois law setting a max freight rate was legal-this acknowledges the states’ authority to regulate industry • The Grange is undermined by the depression of 1873 Farmers’Alliance is successful bc it is biracial and set out to do things the Grange intended to • do 1. Stores just for farmers, owned by farmers 2. Will support ideals of having farmers’ banks 3. Have their own processing plants and storage facilities 4. By 1880s, most small farmers are trapped in sharecropping system • 1887 Interstate Commerce Act-banned discrimination in rates of rail lines- required railroads to post their fees- establishment of Interstate Commerce Commission-Congress will, for the first time, establish their ability to regulate industry- precedent has been established for further regulation by federal government • Farmers’Alliance needed to shift from regional to national movement-Organized the People’s Party-James Weaver is nominee of Party-got over 1,000,000 votes-made debt of farmers recognized as a national issue • Populist’s platform: system of sub-treasuries (famers wanted government-owned warehouses where crop will be stored and used as collateral to allow them to get a government-issued loan at a low interest rate) • This party also wanted to abolish banks “because they wield too much power” Populists also wanted to end absentee land ownership-such as industrialists who purchased • land for future use and they wanted direct election of US Senators instead of patriotism • Populists requested federal regulation of railroads as well as all means of communication (including telephone and telegraph) • Progressives will introduce tax reform-graduated income tax and deal with problem with inflation of currency (want to bring back silver) 2-17-16 Class Notes -Farmers and Workers • Populists sought to unite “all producing classes” -Limited Interracial Cooperation • Farmers’Alliances (including the Southern Farmers’Alliance) worked closely with the Colored Farmer’s Alliances -Embraced Modern Advancements • Misrepresented as backwards-looking • Publicity campaign included: numerous pamphlets, advertisements in local newspapers, and educational seminars • Relied on modern technologies including railroads, telegraph, new markets, and new farming techniques -Women’s Rights • Organized reform-minded women • During the 1890s, Colorado and Idaho approved extending the vote to women Extra Notes: • Election of 1896 is important bc of the Populist party making economic reform the number one issue and bc it is the first modern presidential campaign (first time a presidential candidate will go on a speaking tour)(enormous amounts of money raised) • William Jennings Bryant is the Populist Candidate • Mckinley probably won because he could out fundraises and, therefore, outspend Bryant, is why he won. McKinley-$10 million Bryant-$300,000 -The McKinley Administration: • Protective Tariff • Dingley Tariff (1892) • Economic Reform • Gold Standart Act (1900) • Period of Prosperity • By 1898, American agriculture experienced a boom • Race Relaitons Between 1877 and the 1890s, many African Americans voted and held office. Segregations of blacks and whites was limited to churches, schuss, -White Backlash • As blacks demanded full inclusion, whites expressed resentment • Redeemers-responded to the change in the social status of blacks with discriminatory places Race Relations: Period of “racial Tolerance” • Between 1877 and the 1890s, many African Americans voted and held office. Segregations of • black while and wa -White Backlash • As blacks demanded full inclusion, white expressed resentment Redeemers-responded to the change the stuff of blacks Segregation -Segregation • The Convict Lease system 2-19-16 Class Notes -Separate But Equal • Civil Rights Cases-1883 • Plessy vs Ferguson-1896 -Disenfranchisement Mississippi Plan-1890 • • Marriage of white person w negro or mulatto were unlawful or void. • Other states followed with literacy tests and poll taxes -Unintended Consequences • New laws also disenfranchised many poor and illiterate white men • “Grandfather Clause” - white southerners who participated in election of 1860 could continue to vote (1895) • Guinn vs US (1915) -Separatist School: • Cumming vs. Richmond County - 1899 • States Determined how much to allocate to schools/students • Booker T Washington - Americans should accept separate but equal BUT focus on economic advancements • Tuskeegee Institute to train skilled African Americans -Integrationist School • WEB DuBois • insisted on political and social equality of blacks -Black Club Women and Black Club Baptist Women • Women’s Auxiliary of the National Baptist Convention (1895) • National Association of Colored Women (1890) -European Immigrants “Old Immigrants” vs “New Immigrants” • -Assimilation Encouraged • Public Schools, non-ethnic stores, community churches, American companies encouraged immigrants to adopt American ways -Fear and Resentment • Nativists used stereotypes about immigrants to justify their low wages and exclude them from citizenship 2-22-16 Class Notes • 1790-Expansion of rights to Immigrants • 1870-Citizenship rights are extended to individuals of African descent • 1882-Chinese Exclusion Act is the first restriction on Immigration Rights 1891-Bureau of Immigration will set up restrictions to immigrants entering the US • • 1892-Immigration Act will state that the US federal government, not the states, will determine who can enter into the US-will set up Ellis Island (mostly European Immigrants) and Angel Island (mostly Asian Immigrants). Literacy tests were also implemented • 1917- Introduction of Education Stipulation-you have to pass a health screening and literacy test and proof that you have some form of education (mobilization for WWI) • 1930s-As a result of the economic collapse, many nations will close their borders, including the US • 1952-mccarran-waller Act attempt to make immigration more democratic • Farmers, workers, african americans, and immigrants are experiencing limitations to freedom. • Women have to occupy a separate sphere (the home). However, many will enter working world to support family • Women are interested in being politically involved. Slowly expanded what was known as the “home sphere.” Women would identify the “liquor problem,” saying that alcohol was causing many societal issues-led to the prohibition movement • Women’s clubs-help lower income women Frances Kelley will establish the National Consumers League-wives should not purchase • products without the “white label,” which indicated that women were treated fairly in the factories in which these products were produced • Women’s Christian Temperance Movement -American Empiricism - 1898-1913: • Factors that will launch the US’ desire to build an Empire • Markets Import Sugar and Clothing Embellishments and spices (luxuries to which Americans have • grown accustomed) • Desire to become a world power • Desire to Expand the Navy-Alfred _____ - In 1898, the US’s Navy ranks 5th among superpowers in terms of its naval Capacity. By 1900- 3rd place-Months later it will become the #1 Navy in the world • Christian Missionaries and the Press wanted to Spread American Ideas of Democracy abroad • The first adventure into Empire building by the US is the conquering of Hawaii-easy bc the US had already established trade relationships with Hawaii because of sugar • 1840-GP Judd • US implements Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 • Reciprocity treaty will exempt imported sugar from tax-politicians don't want to undermine this US industry by imposing this harsh tariff • 1887-US established a naval base on Pearl Harbor-one more step toward US expansion • Hawaiian resistance toward Americans will be led by the queen-US congress will dissolve reciprocity treaty as a result, and price of sugar drops by 40% June of 1898-US will have annexed Hawaii, gaining its first territory • US’s involvement in Cuba is different from Hawaii. US returns to right of self-determination in • Cuba-Congress will pass the Teller Amendment, saying that the US cannot annex Cuba • US is ambivalent about deploying troops 2-24-16 Class Notes -Governing the Colonies • Hawaii • Annexed and its inhabitants extended citizenship in 1898 • Cuba Platt Amendment (1901) • • Resistance to “Yankee Imperialism” • Puerto Rico • The Foraker Act (1900) • Insular Cases (1901) • The Philippines • Christian Missionaries argues Filipinos were “unfit for self government” Policy influenced by the concept of the “white man’s burden” (the idea that it is the • responsibility of anglo-saxon nations to dominate non-white nations and people) • US policy toward the Philippines settled into one of control-US established a strong military presence, and Filipinos were not extended citizenship • The Philippine War • Resistance movement led by Emilio Aguinaldo - members of resistance movement are outraged by the control that the US establishes over the Philippine government and economy • The conflict lasted from 1899 to 1903 • In the Aftermath of the War- • Some conflicts last through 1906 • 4500 American casualties in the Spanish American War-bloodiest conflict the US will be engaged in prior to World War I In 1901, William Howard Taft gave the Filipinos broad autonomy - he knew that the • grievances of the Filipino people need to be acknowledged • Treaty of General Relations (1946)-Philippines is granted sovereignty (likely due to the post WWII image that the US has established-US wants to have a better image internationally) • Impact of American Imperialism • Decrease in the native population • Destrucction of Native Culture-Christian missionaries will require natives (especially those in China) to relinquish their native practices including religious beliefs and traditions • Displacement of Natives-especially wealthy landowners in the Philippines because Americans wanted the fertile land • Increased poverty-especially in Hawaii when the native population is not used to cultivate crops-Japanese are brought in to do this job, so natives are economically displaced • Addressed deficiencies in US military services - man power and skill - to address these issues, the McKinley administration will increase the standing army from 25,000 to 100,000 -US Foreign Policy: • US Formalized its Foreign Policy • By 1900, England, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan had begun to carve up China • In September 1898, McKinley issued a statement reflecting the US’s desire to participate in China • Open Door Policy (1899)-The Boxer Rebellion • After McKinley identified the problems within the military, he attempted to improve man power and skills of soldiers-because of this, the US was able to solve the issue of the Boxer Rebellion • Theodore Roosevelt • “International Police”-Progressive Era-Roosevelt argued that the US had a right to insert itself in the affairs of other nations • The Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine- dictated that the US had not only the right, but the responsibility to insert itself in the affairs of other nations as deemed necessary • civilized nations-producing nations, predominately anglo-saxon • uncivilized nations- supplied raw products to civilized nations • Dominican Republic (1904)-colony of Italy until this time-US gets involved in the revolt of the Dominican Republic • Manchuria (1905)-colony of Japan until this point • Cuba (1906) • William Howard Taft: • Said that the US should only be concerned with economic expansion • “Dollar Diplomacy”-The US would invest in underdeveloped countries by loaning them money to grow. Example: Nicaragua (1912 and 1914) • Woodrow Wilson: Will argue that the US should return to its founding principle of nations having self • determination • “Moral Imperialism” - Attempt to only get involved in foreign disputes when the individual who gained power did so illegally. Example- Mexico (1913), Haiti (1913 and 1915), and Dominican Republic (1916)


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