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Notes for 2/22 and 2/24

by: Nicolas Jarrell

Notes for 2/22 and 2/24 1101

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Sociology > 1101 > Notes for 2 22 and 2 24
Nicolas Jarrell

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About this Document

Please let me know if you have any questions and know that I will also have a study guide posted a week before the next exam.
Introductory Sociology
Professor Vincent Roscigno
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolas Jarrell on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1101 at Ohio State University taught by Professor Vincent Roscigno in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
2/22/16 Social Class Stratification  The Functionalist Perspective ­ In US Society  ­ Emphasis on societal institutions  ­ Challenged by very obvious patterns of inequality  ­Societal “Sifting and Sorting” occurs, based on system needs ­Individuals are ranked according to ability and merit, and place into appropriate  positions  ­Rewards are based on the amount of work and effort put in, and the societal  importance of the position  ­If we view the world through functionalist lenses, stratification seems ok/  legitimate ­It is also functional for the whole of society  The Conflict Theorists Response ­The system is not purely merit based ­Inequalities are where we start from, and in institutional treatment and  access along the way ­Has serious consequences for one’s life chances ­Some lapses in the merit argument  ­Reward structure and Rules are not neutral or driven by systems needs ­Those in power shift the award structure to benefit them  ­Ideologies or the belief systems of a society are often disproportionately shared  by those in power, typically to their own advantages  ­Stratification systems benefit some at the cost of others, and are indeed struggles  within most societies  Reality falls between meritocratic system and a system based on institutional biases. Social Mobility ­the movement of people up or down the stratification system (vertical) ­Class systems that are more open allow for more movement than caste systems ­It remains difficult to achieve upward, intergenerational social mobility  The Lower Tail ­Poverty ­Despite the wealth of resources and opportunities in the US, poverty remains a  significant social problem  ­Sociologists discuss two general types of poverty:  ­Absolute poverty­ in your head, if you imagine truly impoverished,  depending on nutrition and other levels of health  ­Relative Poverty­ poverty line, government decides based on certain  necessities of life that are deemed required to live   ­Race, sex, the family you were born into­ if these impart opportunities, then they  make you more or less prone to poverty during your lifetime  ­Economic structural opportunity, shifts and mobility (Structural mobility) ­Geographic mobility  Real implications for everyday life, identities, and within the life course  We then watched the rest of the “People Like Us,” 2/24/16 Poverty: A Case in Point ­Sociologists may have empirical explanations for poverty, but by and large they all fall  under one of 2 themes ­focusing on its systematic and functional nature of inequality ­The culture of poverty arguments­ consistent with functionalism  ­Focusing on the hierarchy (social exclusion, institutional processes) ­consistent with conflict theorists Global Inequality  ­inequality within and between countries ­Indicators of global inequality and life chances ­Theories of global inequality  ­Consequences  Globalization  ­A process of increased interconnectedness, especially in terms of economics, politics,  and culture  ­Has led to massive wealth for some, while others seem to be left further and further  behind ­We can systematically study differences in wealth and power between countries Per person gross national income (GNI) is used as a measure of global inequality  ­High: $12,276 and up ­Upper Middle: $3,976­12,275 ­Lower Middle: $1,005­3,975 ­Low: $1,005 or less Social sciences have evolved from using first world, second world denominations because of its  bias See example 10.1 in book for example of inequality gap Rich vs. Poor: income per measure ­some sociologists look at economic development per country Global Inequality ­Using average household income shows huge differences in countries annual population  growth­ less kids usually means a wealthier country due to lower infant mortality rates Other base trademarks of inequality and deprivation: ­Literacy­ the majority of the world’s poor are illiterate ­Nutrition­ One­Third of the world is undernourished  ­Housing­ More than 40% of urban dwellers in developing countries live in slums ­Health­ the poor have worse health, die younger, and have significantly higher rates of  infant and child mortality  Explaining Global Inequality Theoretically  1. Modernization Theories­ functionalist  2. Dependency Theory and World Systems analysis i. Both are conflict oriented  Theory and explaining global inequality  ­Focuses on attitudes, geography, culture, and different histories of industrialization  ­certain ethnocentric biases ­usually neglects power relations and interdependencies Dependency of World System Theories­ Conflict ­Power relations and histories= uneven relations, colonialism  ­Emanuel Wallenstein­ world system theorist ­3 classes ­core= upper class ­semi periphery= middle class ­periphery= lower class ­All interconnected What will Globalization bring? ­There are many different scenarios ­Prosperity ­Consumption ­Political Stability  ­Global integration Exploitation by more powerful  ­Repression ­Terrorism/ Political Instability 


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