HIST 111, Week 6 Notes
HIST 111, Week 6 Notes History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
Popular in History
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 6: A New Nation Introduction July 4, 1788 all types of citizens celebrated in Philly o Christians marched with Jews o Represented what many hoped would be a diverse but cohesive, prosperous nation Shays’ Rebellion In 1786 and 1787 there was a lot of debt which many attributed to the Articles of Confederation which did not allow the federal government to raise revenue Massachusetts farmers wanted the gov to protect them from creditors but the state supported the lenders instead Revolution veteran Daniel Shay led the armed men to form blockades around courthouses to prevent judges from issuing foreclosure orders Governor James Bowdoin saw them as rebels trying to overthrow the government o Thousands of militiamen were called up to stop them Daniel Shay and others were indicted for treason and some were sentenced to death For nationalists like James Madison, Shay’s Rebellion proved why there should be a strong central government The Constitutional Convention 12 of the 13 states agreed to send a delegate to Philly the summer of 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation o RI declined to send a rep Main goal was to solve the issue of federal gov not levying taxes Madison wanted a whole new constitution o He had researched the history of gov in the US and history of other republics around the world o With this research he proposed the VA plan, named after his home state o He wanted to create an “extended republic” encompassing a diversity of people, climates, and customs VA plan proposed that the US have a strong federal government o 3 branches with power to act on any issues of national concern o Legislative branch would have 2 houses in which every state would be represented according to population size o National legislature would have veto power over state laws Small states like NJ and Delaware liked that in the continental congress each state had one vote o Also believed that state legislatures should appoint members of congress and that the common man was not informed enough to vote Connecticut rep Roger Sherman suggested a compromise – The Great Compromise o House of rep had members based on population o Senate where each state would have one vote Eventually became two who could vote independently of one another o Also counted slaves as 3/5 of a person James Wilson was the first to suggest that the power of the executive branch be with one person o Very contentious because reminded many of a monarchy o After many months came up with the idea of the electoral college Ratifying the Constitution Convention voted to send proposed constitution to congress which was then in NY with a cover letter from Washington Plan to adopt the constitution required approval from special state ratification conventions, not just congress VA George Mason had suggested a bill of rights which had not been included so many people opposed the constitution Anti-Federalists argued that without a guarantee of specific rights citizens risked losing personal liberties Federalists (liked the constitution) argued that including a bill of rights could be dangerous in limiting future citizens from adding new rights o Federalist papers by Hamilton, Madison, and John Jay were published in 1787 and 1788 Massachusetts was the first to vote and narrowly accepted it, but attached amendments VA in June 1788 was high profile b/c federalists such as Madison squared off against anti federalists such as George Mason o After a month they approved it July 2, 1788 congress announced that a majority of states had ratified the Constitution and that the document was now in effect Rights and Compromises By 1793 the term “Anti-Federalist” would essentially be meaningless Yet, the debate led to the Bill of Rights Americans viewed the slave trade as more violent and immoral than slavery itself o Slaves gave south power in gov b/c they counted as 3/5 of a person o In addition upper south supported the end of the slave trade b/c then existing slaves could be sold for more money New England and Deep South agreed to the “dirty compromise” at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 o Protected slave trade for 20 years in return for SC and GA support in Congress Slave trade was outlawed in 1808 for 3 reasons o Britain was and they didn’t want to seem less moral o Successful slave revolt in Haiti terrified many white Americans o Rebellion in Haiti also led to France selling the Louisiana Territory which put into question if slavery would be allowed there Hamilton’s Financial System Even from Washington’s presidency there was tension between the “Federalist” and “Republican” parties Hamilton believed that self-interest was the “most powerful incentive of human actions” o Believed state should protect private property from theft o Should harness citizens desires for property so that both private individuals and the state would benefit o Did not believe state should ensure equal distribution of property First part of Hamilton’s plan was that the federal government would take the states debts from the Revolutionary War o $25 million Secondly he wanted Congress to create a bank – a Bank of the United States o Act as a convenient depository for federal funds o Print paper bank notes backed by silver or gold o Agents would control inflation by taking state bank notes to their banks of origin and demanding the gold and silver in exchange o Would also get wealthy people involved in government Wanted the government to pay off the debt using bonds 1791 Congress approved a 20 year charter for the Bank o Bank’s stocks and federal bonds created over $70 million in new financial instruments Some people said that this was giving the wealthy too much power over the federal government Also, in order to pay for the bonds in 1791 Hamilton proposed a federal tax on a number of goods, including whiskey The Whiskey Rebellion and Jay’s Treaty Grain was the most valuable cash crop for many American farmers o Often sold for alcohol production Hamilton’s whiskey tax placed a special burden on Western farmers o Divided the country between East and West Between merchants and farmers & city and countryside All over PA from 1791-1794 there were riots and beatings of tax collectors o July 1794 a group of 7,000 robbed the US mail and gathered eight miles from Pittsburgh Washington dispatched a committee of 3 PA men to meet with the rebels and try to come up with a peaceful resolution o Also gathered an army of 13,000 militiamen in Carlisle, PA o He led his troops in the field before turning the command over to Henry Lee Farmers scattered Rebellion had shown that the federal government was capable of quelling internal unrest Another national issue was America’s role in foreign trade, particularly in relation to Great Britain In April 1793 John Jay, the chief justice of the supreme court, sailed to London to negotiate a treaty that would satisfy US and Britain o Jefferson and Madison opposed these negotiations Wanted to side with the French Also feared that the treaty would favor northern merchants over the agricultural south November 1794, Jay’s Treaty required Britain to abandon all military positions in the Northwest Territory by 1796 and to compensate American merchants for their losses o In return the US agreed to treat Britain as most prized trade partner o However, Jay failed to secure an end to impressment Capture of US sailors and force them to join the British navy Treaty is seen as truly the start of political parties in the US The French Revolution and the Limits of Liberty At first the American citizens were super supportive of the French revolutions, believing that their democratic ideals were spreading However, a radical coalition of revolutionaries soon seized power and initiated a bloody purge of their enemies, the “Reign of Terror” o Those who feared the French Rev were federalists Wanted closer ties to Britain to remain safe o Those who had hope became republicans Violence didn’t scare them 1796 the US peacefully elected a new president, John Adams In response to Jay’s Treaty the French gov authorized vessels to attack American shipping o Adams sent envoys to France in 1797 to try and resolve this o French insulted these diplomats who were code named “X, Y, and Z” Said they needed a bribe to begin negotiations This infuriated American citizens “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” Many citizens in the south feared a French attack on US soil with black soldiers In 1798, in New England a minister named Jedidiah Morse, announced to his congregation that the French Revolution had been hatched in a conspiracy led by a mysterious anti-Christian organization called Illuminati 1798 the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed, intending to prevent French agents and sympathizers from compromising America’s resistance o Alien Act allowed the gov to deport foreign nationals who seemed to pose a national security threat o Sedition Act allowed the government to prosecute anyone found to be speaking or publishing false, scandalous, and malicious writing against the government The acts led to a backlash in two ways o Shocked opponents articulated a new and expansive vision for liberty o Madison and Jefferson wrote the KY and VA Resolutions which argued that the national government’s authority was limited to the powers expressly granted by the US constitution Religious Freedom Illuminati scare of 1798 was just one manifestation of the US’s uncertainty of own religious future Gradual stop of supporting an official religious denomination was called “disestablishment” Many political leaders, including Jefferson and Madison, favored disestablishment b/c they saw the relationship Jefferson proposed a Statute for Religious Freedom in the VA state assembly in 1779 o Madison proposed it again in 1785 and it defeated a rival bill that would have given equal revenue to all protestant churches Constitutional convention of 1787 agreed that the national government shouldn’t have an official religion Election of 1800 Alien and Sedition acts expired in 1801 and 1800, and showed colonists what they didn’t want from their government Election of 1800 the republicans defeated Adams in a bitter and complicated presidential race o In the end there was a tie between two republicans, Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr On the 36 ballot in the house Jefferson emerged victorious In his inaugural speech Jefferson offered an olive branch to the federalists Adams leaving the white house peacefully set president While Jefferson worked to decrease federal influence, Chief Justice John Marshall, worked to increase the authority of the Supreme court Chapter 7: The Early Republic Free and Enslaved Black Americans and the Challenge to Slavery Almost 1000 slaves planned to attack Richmond in August 1800 and end slavery in VA o Led by a slave named Gabriel who was later killed o On August 30 2 enslaved men revealed plot to their master o Due to bad weather Gabriel postponed the attack which gave the Gov Monroe time to capture conspirators Revolt proved that slaves could turn violent and that the whites had failed at suppressing news of other slave revolts o Haitian revolt inspired many slaves In 1829 David Walker, a black abolitionist in Boston, wrote an Appeal that called for resistance to slavery and racism Haiti sent the message that enslaved and free blacks could not be omitted from conversations about the meaning of liberty and equality Whites portrayed blacks as “buffoons” in characters for their calls for abolition and equal rights o Need to reinforce the difference between blacks and whites proved perhaps it wasn’t so obvious Henry Moss became most famous black man when he started getting white spots on his body in 1792 o Scientists said it was b/c blackness came from leprosy and therefore it was something you could cure Enlightenment provided a four prong revolt against old world o Common humanity o Possibility of societal progress o Remaking of oneself o Importance of one’s social and ecological environment 1787 Samuel Stanhope published his treatise Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species which articulated the theory of racial change and suggested that improving the social environment would tap into the innate equality of humankind Thomas Jefferson did not believe blacks were capable of mental improvement and that they may even have a separate ancestry o Believed nature had made the white and black races too different to coexist and believed colonization in Africa was the solution or racial problem Jefferson’s Notes on the State of VA sparked backlash from antislavery and black communities Jeffersonian Republicanism and the Democratization of America Jefferson’s election to the presidency in 1800 represented a victory for ordinary white Americans to assume more direct control of the government o Pure democracy: direct control of the government by the people Jefferson wanted to convince Americans that a gov that answered to the people would lead to lasting national union, not anarchic division, proving that free people could govern themselves democratically Celebrations of Jefferson’s presidency and defeat of Federalists expressed many citizens’ willingness to assert greater direct control over the government at citizens Republican Motherhood is used to describe the early American belief that women were essential in nurturing the principles of liberty in citizenry Jefferson as President Jefferson worked to reduce taxes and cut the governments budget believing that this would cause the economy to expand and prosper o Included national defense Authorized the acquisition of Louisiana from France in 1803 for just $15 million o It was unclear if constitutionally he was able to do this but Jefferson believed a strong leader must put the best interest of the country before all else Jefferson’s foreign policy, especially the Embargo of 1807, elicited the most outrage from his Federalist critics o Many Americans called for war when the British attacked the USS Chesapeake in 1807 o Instead he passed the embargo act where American ports were closed to all foreign trade in hopes of avoiding war However it hurt the economy and caused people to sneak goods out anyway Jefferson’s enemies criticized his politics and also how he dealt with racial issues o James Callender claimed he was sleeping with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings Republican Party rose to power on the promise to expand voting and promote a more direct link between political leaders and the electorate Native American Power and the United States Prior to revolution, many Indian nations had balanced a delicate diplomacy between European empires, called the “play-off system” Despite the role they played helping to defeat the british, they got nothing when the war was over After the revolution Indians built relationships with US and other Indian nations o Chiefs were important, but even more translators were Throughout the early republic the native peoples avoided war with each other and the federal government However, poor treatment led to calls for pan-Indian alliances Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his brother, Tenskwatawa, the Prophet, helped envision an alliance for North America’s indigenous populations o Pan-indian confederacy was the culmination of the many nativist and revitalization movements that swept indigenous North America during the 18 century Neolin, the Delaware prophet, influenced Pontiac, an Ottawa war chief and urged native people to give up white peoples ways and nature This eventually led to 7 years war From 1763-1765 the great lakes, Ohio valley, and upper Susquehanna valley area were embroiled in a war between Pontiac’s confederacy and the British Empire 1791-1795 many tribes waged war against whites in the “Northwest Indian War” o Lost at the Battle of Fallen Timbers but won enough times to force President Washington to reformulate federal Indian policy Tenskwatawa pronounced that the Master of Life entrusted him and Tecumseh with the responsibility for returning native peoples to the one true path and to rid Native communities of the dangerous and corrupting influences of Euro-American trade and culture His use of the “master of life” was challenged by other native leaders until he led witch hunts in the 1800s Red Stick Creeks led by Hillis Hadjo brought beliefs to southeast o Howevery they were defeated by Jackson and other native forces during the Battle of Horseshoe Bend o Red sticks were forced to cede 14 million acres of land at the Treaty of Fort Jackson Tenskwatawa suffered severe losses at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 Legacy of these leaders led to pan Indian unity against the white man The War of 1812 Congress ended the Embargo, as the British relaxed their policies toward American ships War of 1812 stemmed from US entanglement in 2 sets of international issues o First was the nation’s desire to maintain its position as a neutral trading nation during the series of Anglo-French wars, which began in the aftermath of the French Revolution o Second had older roots in the colonial and revolutionary era American economy quickly grew and there was a labor shortage in the shipping industry so captains recruited British sailors using high wages o 30 percent of sailors employed on American ships were British Could become American citizens if they denounced the crown Britain was in a war and didn’t want to lose any men, this led to impressment British efforts to arm and supply native Americans angered Americans and strengthened anti-British sentiments In 1812, republicans had majority in both the senate and the house and among them were “war hawks” who were too young to remember the war and were willing to risk another British war to keep the nations rights and independence o Madison was convinced and asked congress for a declaration of war on June 1, 1812 It was finally signed after being edited on June 18 War can be organized into 3 sections o 1812-1813 Great Britain was chiefly occupied in Europe against Napoleon and the United States invaded Canada o 1813-1814 the US launched their second offensive against Canada and the Great Lakes o 1815 was in the south when Jackson won in New Orleans, Louisiana Naval victories were a big deal in this war cause british were supposed to have the best fleet o It was watching a naval battle that the Star Spangled Banner was penned by Francis Scott Key British were able to burn DC on August 24, 1814 and open a new theater of operations in the South Later Americans won the Battle of NOLA which was after treaty was signed but still shaped how people remembered the war Federalists met in 1814 to try and end the war and curb the power of the republican party o Abolish 3/5 rule o Limit president to single term in office o Demand 2/3 congressional majority for legislation that declared war, admitted new states, or regulated commerce o Letter arrived right after NOLA win and they looked like traitors War led to terror and love working together to make American citizens feel a stronger bond with their country o Led to a focus on expansion 1823 President James Monroe issued an ultimatum to the empires of Europe in order to support several wars of independence in Latin America o Monroe Doctrine declared that the United States considered its entire hemisphere off limits to new European colonization o Cut size of military, advocated an aggressive foreign policy o Authorized gov to invest in canals and roads Chapter 7 Supplemental Letter of Cato and Petition by “the negroes who obtained freedom by the late act,” in Postscript to the Freeman’s Journal, September 21, 1781 Elimination of slavery in states like PA was slow and hard This is a letter to the black newspaper, Philly Freedom’s Journal, a formerly enslaved man uses rhetoric of the revolution to attack slavery The lots of slavery were hard but after tasting freedom it would be impossible to go back Thomas Jefferson’s racism, 1788 American racism spread during the first decades after the American Revolution Jefferson and others fostered faulty scientific reasoning to justify laws that protected slavery and white supremacy Blacks are inferior to whites in both body and mind Perhaps even different species Tecumseh calls for pan-Indian resistance, 1810 Tecumseh articulated a spiritual message of pan-Indian unity and resistance This document shows that Anglo-American understandings of race has spread to Indians as well Congress debates going to war, 1811 Some said yes and some said no Abigail Bailey escapes an abusive relationship, 1815 This case is remarkable b/c she was able to successfully free herself and her children from an abusive husband and father
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