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ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #4

by: Ashley

ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #4 ARCH 2243 - 001


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Here are the notes about the ghetto in venice and Palladio.
History of Architecture II
Kim Sexton
Class Notes
History of Architecture, Palladio, Italy, Renaissance architecture, Ghetto in Italy
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
2-8-2016 The Ghetto in Venice I. Venice at the threshold of the Renaissance  Trade – byzantine, eastern and gothic visual culture  Basilica San Marco (Veneto-Byzantine) Romanesque  Doge’s Palace (Gothic with Eastern touches)  Republicanism – housing oVenetian Elite Residences oRenaissance Palazzo oGothic Palazzo oVertical orientation – loggia or portico in the middle and more solid sides of the façade II. The Ghetto – Venice, Italy – 16 century – vernacular  Context oStarted as a foundry – making and melting metal for armory, huge arsenal oClosed in 1434 and moved to a much bigger area farther away from the center of the town oLosing maritime empire to the Ottoman Turks oLosing all territory on the Italian mainland in the humiliating League of Cambrai War oSpace of exclusion – why this area for the ghetto  Very far away from the center of town  Some Jews used to be off to the smaller island then the venetians decided they were useful so they needed to be on the main island  Group Thinking oAll the boat access into the buildings were closed off so the houses were like walls oThere was a passage into the ghetto oThere were guards at the passages to make sure the Jews never left at night (during the day they were free to walk wherever)  Except doctors could leave at night oHousing block subdivided – buildings kept getting taller and taller to give room for more and more Jews  Architectural Style oSince they were running out of space why didn’t they start building into their huge square? oThe square somehow gave them some connection to an actual town instead of just a cut off neighborhood oBuildings reinforce sense of community and survival  There were wells for fresh water in the piazza – center for community oVernacular forms articulate sacred space  Three synagogues around the piazza  There was a German one and an Italian and one other one 2-8-2016  Five windows  the Pentateuch of Torah (first five books of the bible) III. Piazza San Marco – Venice, Italy – 16 cent – Jacopo Sansovino (renovation) – Renaissance  Context o1527 – sack of Rome by Germans … sent artists and architects out of the country oJacopo Sansovino – worked under Bramante, from Venice oEngineering skill gave him the job of renovation  Domes were falling apart and he was able to fix that  Urbanistic Principles oFirst thing was demolish a few buildings on one of the angles to make at least one 90 angle  This freed up the bell tower – independent monument  Centers the St. Mark’s on the space  Creating a perspectival view oUniform classical treatment of facades which emphasizes the regular geometry otrend toward controlled, regular geometric form (ideal Platonic geometry) oestablishing a fixed ideal viewing point approximating single-point perspectival constructs ohierarchical focus on a single, centered monument ouniform, classical treatment of facades which emphasizes the regular geometry  16 Century Psychological Engagement oIt is actually a trapezoid but it look slike a rectangle while you are in it 2-8-2016  Precedent oHaving a temple on a uniformly made piazza oIdeal roman forum (there is onthin Pompeii IV. Library of San Marco – Venice, Italy – 16 cent – Sansovino – Renaissance  Precedents oBramante’s Palazzo Caprini was a binary façade with two different designs BUT here there is a binary façade but not too much difference between the two floors oHe made the theatre have more seating room on the ‘balconies’ so that there could be people watching performances in the piazza from the buildings oTheater of Marcellus – Rome  Façade oDoric columns on first floor oIonic columns on second floor oSensitivity to local tradition  This façade has much more ornament than Theater of Marcellus  Play with the atmosphere  Have more surfaces to catch light and create light and shadow  Minor ionic order columns are added to the second level piers  This helps frame people who may occupy the arch oRelation to the Gothic Ducal Palace across the piazza  Also doing a double portico  The other building has crenellation so he puts a statue above the cornice over each column to mimic the crenellation  Social Implication oGround floor loggia – for people to shop there because the government didn’t want to lose the economic value of the space oLibrary  On the corner on the second floor (takes up half the plan)  The other half of the second floor is offices for business noble men th  16 Centurythesthetics o16 century  Appeals to the eye  Sculptural exterior  Stronger classical language th o15 century  Appeals more to the mind  not as strong of a classical language  every other column on the second floor are placed over a void space 2-10-16 A Religious and Cultural Crossroads: Palladio’s Venice I. Il Redentore – Venice, Italy – 16 cent. – Andrea Palladio – Renaissance  Palladio oAndrea Palladio – came from the stone cutting profession, roots in world of construction oHe started in the lower working class oHis mentor was Gian Giorgio Trissino oHe wrote four books on architecture oWhite palette – back to Brunelleschi  Context oPolitics  It is across the canal so there is a big distance to see the façade  He is used to distant prospects though  A votive church – thanking god for ending the plague  Ancient Roman precedent  Baths of Agrippa (Pantheon in the front) oCultural Traditions  The dome shows respect  Bell tower kind of looks like a minaret oCounter-Reformation  Catholic clergy try to counter the counter reformation  Architectural responses  Church – audience hall 2-10-16  They wanted people to sit and listen to the mass, not get lost in ornament or unnecessary niches  Even lighting  Lots of white  Precedents oBaths of Agrippa in Rome– looking through vistas in space design oBaths of Caracalla – Palladio used the thermal window idea from there oPalladio studied more of being IN the space and how they made him feel unlike most architects  Theory oComposite plan = central plan + longitudinal plan  Bramante did this oLongitudinal plan  centrally planned sanctuary  monks choir oNew façade type  2 temple fronts (back one is for the side chapels)  Double arrangement of gables  Signature Style oFaçade – powerfully concentrated so that no extraneous elements distract from a distance  Take away unneeded ornament  Minimal sculptural detail  Only 2 statues  Kind of like Brunelleschi  Entrance stairs just span the small front temple oInterior – color palette and motifs and classical orders  Muted colors – counter reformation  Straight piers flanked by engaged columns and then a niche  Monks choir plan  Framing of relics in niches are the same style as the windows  Very distinct way the nave ends  Distinct and interconnected  In the alter area the columns become pilasters – less articulation – focus on the alter more than ornament – counter reformation  Humanism oBrunelleschi – geometry +modules + proportions oIdeal body proportions oPalladio – harmonic rations from Pythagoras  Based on music  16 Century Aesthetics oIncrease in plasticity oVaried lighting oNot “mathematically generated” oMolded forms oOptical and Psychological highpoint at the end of apse 2-10-16  Spaces seemed closed and open at the same time due to the monks choir behind the alter creating a light open space behind what should be the end of the whole space 2-12-16 Ecology and the Early Modern Landscape: Palladio and the Renaissance Villa I. Ideologies of the villa  Villa life revived oPeople that work in the city do better if they have a weekend villa that disassociates them from their work for a little oEconomic and political reasons  Earning less money on the sea now cause they are no longer a monopoly  Solution = use the land at the villas  Typology oUnlike farmhouses  There was a villa and a workhouse  Much nicer and bigger due to the fact that the owners are Noblemen and businessmen oOpen and extended  Based on Hadrian’s Villa  Blend in with nature  Blocky but light colors to reflect light  Cubic contrast II. Villa Rotunda – Vicenza, Italy – 16 cent – Palladio – Renaissance  Context oPlace to relax on the weekends oFirst domestic residence with a visible dome from the exterior oBuilt faithfully in plan 2-12-16  Theory oTotal Integration of part to part, and part to whole (recommended by Alberti, but realized only by Palladio among Italian Ren. architects) integration through harmonic proportions  Typology oVilla typology  Cube stands out from nature  Prismatic  On top of a hill oFaçade typology  Set apart but connects back to Venice – vertical articulation  Triad design oEntrance typology  Temple front entry for a villa  Based on a Roman style temple front  A little unusual but make the homeowners (noble men used to high status) feel higher up  Signature Style oPlatonic geometries  Strip things down to let the geometric qualities show  Strong cubic form  A strong sense of volume  This a part of Palladio’s modern appeal oThorough-going symmetry  Very thorough in proportions  Across two axis oCentral Position of the main hall  His main hall is in a way an atrium th  16 Century Aesthetics oGives a sense of space oVery white therefore picking up reflection of colors around it  Sun and countryside th III. Villa Barbaro - Italy – 16 cent – Palladio – Renaissance 2-12-16  Context oThe villa looked like a temple on the front creating a greater appeal to richer people in the main towns to want a villa to get away to oBuilt into the slope oTwo stories in the front and just one story in the back  Program oCompletely symmetrical just like the human body oThrusting forward the main center of the building has a porch to survey the land and also provide space for entry and ceremonies or past times oTwo wings are for living and working  They have a simple façade  Very deep and long loggia  Strange how living is placed directly on top of working area oGround floor = kitchen and other working areas oSecond floor = living  The loggia creates a shadow for the windows so it doesn’t get to hot in the rooms oabrupt meeting of wings to main building oapartments above service rooms in wings obrick construction transformed by stucco ostairs to main hall tucked into wings ono transition between utilitarian wings and noble upper-floor halls ofountain in back is for relaxation and for irrigation  Palladio’s Signature Style oUse of standardized ratios in room dimensions oAlignment of rooms enfilade for vistas + breezes oAxial alignment of important rooms: Hall of Olympus and cruciform main hall oSolid above solid and space above space  Doors and windows are always aligned oHe separates space between square + half square multiple times in the back hall and then the front cruciform is a serious of thirds of squares oWings seem to have been banged together to the main hall  Its more about the overall image seen from the front oThey are pragmatically built .. all made out of brick and stucco  16 Cent. Aesthetics oGives a sense of space oVery white therefore picking up reflection of colors around it (countryside and sun)


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