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Unit 4: How Food Becomes You

by: Louise Alessandra Laguit

Unit 4: How Food Becomes You 65915

Louise Alessandra Laguit
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

How does the body digest food after its consumption?
Nutrition, Food and You
Jennifer Ricketts
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Louise Alessandra Laguit on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 65915 at University of Arizona taught by Jennifer Ricketts in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Nutrition, Food and You in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Arizona.

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Date Created: 02/24/16
Friday, January 29, 2016 NSC 170C Unit 4 tissues masses of cells that have similar characteristics and functions organ collection of tissues that function in a related fashion organ system group of organs that work together for a similar purpose omnivore organism that can digest and absorb nutrients from plans, animals, fungi, and bacteria digestion process by which large food components are mechanically and chemically broken down molecules basic chemical units that make up substances mechanical digestion physical breakdown of foods chemical digestion chemical breakdown of foods by substances secreted into the digestive tract digestive tract muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus absorption process by which substances are taken from the digestive tract and enter the bloodstream 1 Friday, January 29, 2016 accessory organs organs of the digestive system that assist digestive tract function saliva water fluid secreted by the salivary glands that mixes with food in the mouth enzymes proteins that help chemical reactions occur esophagus tubular organ of the digestive tract that connects the back of the mouth with the stomach epiglottis flap or tissue that folds down over the trachea (windpipe) to keep food from entering the lungs during swallowing peristalsis type of muscular contraction of the digestive tract Heimlich maneuver life-saving technique for people who are choking lower gastroesophageal sphincter (LES) ring of smooth muscle in the last section of esophagus; controls the opening between the esophagus and stomach mucus slippery fluid that protects certain cells chyme mixture of gastric juice and partially digested food pyloric sphincter ring of muscle at the base of the stomach that control the rate at which chyme leaves the stomach 2 Friday, January 29, 2016 duodenum first segment of the small intestine jejunum middle segment of the small intestine ileum last segment of the small intestine villi (singular: villus) tiny, fingerlike projections of the small intestinal lining that participate in digesting and absorbing food absorptive cells digestive tract cells that absorb nutrients lacteal lymphatic system vessel in villus that absorbs most lipids lymph fluid in the lymphatic system colon major structure of the large intestine rectum lower section of the large intestine probiotics live and active cultures of beneficial bacteria constipation condition that occurs when bowel movements occur less frequently than normal and/or are difficult to eliminate hemorrhoids swollen veins in the anal canal that can cause itching and bleeding 3 Friday, January 29, 2016 diverticula tiny pouches that can form in the lining of the large intestine heartburn backflow of irritating stomach contents into the esophagus gastroesphageal reflux disease (GERD) chronic condition characterized by frequent heartburn peptic ulcer a sore that occurs in the lining of the upper GI tract irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) chronic condition characterized by frequent bouts of intestinal cramps with diarrhea or constipation ulcerative colitis form of inflammatory bowel disease colorectal cancer cancer that starts in either the colon or the rectum Crohn’s disease form of inflammatory bowel disease energy capacity to perform work catabolism metabolic processes that break down larger substances into smaller ones anabolism metabolic processes that build larger substances from smaller ones hormones chemical messengers 4 Friday, January 29, 2016 adenosine triphosphate (ATP) “energy currency” of cells aerobic metabolism metabolic pathways that require oxygen anaerobic metabolism metabolic pathway that functions without oxygen 5


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