HDFS Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth
HDFS Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth 629152
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 629152 at penn state berks taught by Krysta Murillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see The Development of Children in Child Development at penn state berks.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth I. The Period of Prenatal Development Prenatal Development is divided into three broad periods: 1. Germinal Period 2. Embryonic Period 3. Fetal Period Germinal Period Begins at conception. Lasts until the zygote enters the uterus and becomes implanted (8 to 10 days after conception). Organism has grown from a single cell to hundreds of cells. Embryonic Period Begins at implantation. Lasts until the end of the 8th week. All major organs have taken primitive shape. Sexual differentiation has begun. The placenta allows the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother and the embryo. Fetal Period Begins at the 9th week, Lasts until birth. The fetus dramatically grows in weight and length. The brain and all organ systems increase in complexity. By 15 weeks the fetus exhibits all movements observable at birth. Basic sensory capacities developing. Ex: sensing motion, light, sound Environmental influences from outside and inside the mother can affect fetal development. Ex: mother’s diet and illnesses II. Maternal Conditions and Prenatal Development Two environmental conditions affecting prenatal development: 1. Mother’s attitude towards her pregnancy or stress during the pregnancy. 2. Mother’s nutrition. Maternal Attitudes and Stress A mother’s attitude towards a pregnancy. Effects of a negative attitude Low birth weight Longerterm developmental risks A mother’s stress Immediate effects of elevated levels of the hormone cortisol. Influences of Mother’s Nutrition A mother’s nutrition is an important factor in fetal development. Recommended food intake: Consume enough calories in a wellbalanced diet. Increase intake of folic acid, calcium, and iron. Effects of extreme undernourishment, and malnutrition. Low birth weight, premature birth, abnormalities, and death. Effects of lesser degrees of poor nutrition. Increase risk, although effects can be difficult to isolate. Effects of overnutrition Overweight in babies Later health risks Obesity Diabetes III. Teratogens: Environmental Sources of Birth Defects Teratogens: Environmental agents that can cause deviations from normal development and can lead to abnormalities or death. Sex general principles apply to all teratogens: 1. The susceptibility of the organism depends on its developmental stage. 2. A teratogen’s effects are likely to be specific to a particular organ. 3. Individual organisms vary in their susceptibility to teratogens. 4. The mother’s physiological state influences susceptibility to teratogens. 5. The greater the concentration of a teratogenic agent, the greater the risk. 6. Teratogens that have little or no effect on the mother can seriously affect the developing organism. Common Teratogens: Drugs Including prescription drugs, caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, and methadone. Infections and other health conditions Including rubella and HIV. Radiation or pollution at high levels. IV. Birth The stages of labor Normally begins approximately 266 days conception. Proceeds through three stages. 1.Uterine contractions cause the cervix to dilate. 2.The baby is pushed through birth canal. 3.The baby is delivered and the afterbirth is delivered. Birth: Cultural Variations Childbirth Experiences: Be assisted by a physician or midwife in a hospital. Be assisted by a midwife and/or others at home. Unassisted birth Kung, Bajura(Nepal) Relatively rare Childbirth in the United States 99% of babies are born in hospitals. Most concerns centered around: How to safely deal with pain. Medication Precautions to ensure the health of both mother and baby. Medical Interventions Alternative Approaches The Baby’s Experience of Birth A stressful experience. Surge of stress hormones. May contribute to initiating birth. Necessary for lungs to function properly. Increase metabolic rate. Induces state of alertness. V. The Newborn’s Condition Assessing the Baby’s Vitality The Apgar Scale Physical condition Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale Behavioral Condition Primary Goal: Screening for infants at risk. Secondary Goal: Predict aspects of future development. Physical Condition The Apgar Scale Assesses physical condition Factors rated: Heart Rate Respiratory effort Muscle tone Reflex responsivity Color A low score requires immediate medical attention. Behavioral Condition Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale Assesses subtle behavioral aspects of newborn conditions. Includes tests of: Reflexes Motor capacities Muscle tone Responsiveness to objects and people Control of own behavior Problems and Complications Prematurity Birth before the 37th week. Immature lungs, digestive, or immune systems. Low Birth Weight Below 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2500 grams). Intrauterine growth restrictions. VI. Beginning the ParentChild Relationship The Baby’s Appearance Can significantly influence the parent's’ response to the baby. Ex: “babyness” (“cuteness’’) Social Expectations Parental expectations, influenced by the culture, influence the child’s development in ways that shape the child’s development. Ex: the baby’s sex.
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