Note for MGMT 305 at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
305 Study Guide Exam 2 1 De nition of Learning Learning is a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior which results from practice or experience 2 Operant Conditioning Theory De ne and know well major concepts associated with it Antecedents Positive reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Extinction Punishment and Shapingidefine each and know when to use and impact of its use Be able to recognize examples of each Know guidelines for using punishment Behavior is a function of its consequences To increase the probability of a desired behavior Positive reinforcement involves giving positive consequences to employee when they perform the desired behavior Negative reinforcement involves removing a negative consequence when the employee performs the desired behavior Punishment decreases undesired behavior Negative reinforcement increased the likely hood of positive behavior 2a Conditions necessary for vicarious learning Must observe a model Must accurately perceive the model s behavior Must remember the behavior Must have the skills necessary to perform the behavior Must see that the model receives reinforcement for the behavior 3 Experiential Learning What is it When amp how used Learning by doing Simulations Practice with observer 4 Selfefficacy Define An employee s belief about hisher ability to successfully perform a behavior 4a What does it affect Activities and goals employees choose Effort exerted Persistence 4b How can it be increased Using shaping so that employees have past success to rely on Have them observe other employees successfully perform the task Provide encouragement and support 5 Motivation impacts what three things Be able to recognize examples of each The interests of the people you are trying to motivate Your interests How you can arrange for the people you are trying to motivate to obtain their interests by doing what you want 6 De ne intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and recognize examples of each Intrinsic motivation Behavior is performed for its own performing behavior in and of itself is rewarding Extrinsic motivation Behavior is performed to obtain rewards or avoid punishment 7 Know other factors affecting performance besides motivation Personality Ability Task Difficulty Availability of Resources Working Conditions Chance Luck 8 Know the core job dimensions and their definitions Know implementing concepts Core Job Dimensions Skill Variety Degree that job requires a variety of activities using a number of different skillsabilities Task Identity Degree that job requires completion of a while and identifiable piece of work Task Signi cance Degree job has substantial impact on life or work of others Autonomy Degree job provides freedom independence and discretion in scheduling work and determining how to carry it out Feedback Degree that work activities result in getting feedback about performance 8a Implementing Concepts Combine tasks Employee responsible for doing a piece of work from start to finish Form natural work units Tasks that form and identifiable and meaningful whole Establish client relationships Employees interact with customersclients and are responsible for managing these relationships and satisfying customers Vertical loading Gives employees responsibilities and controls formerly reserved for managers Open feedback channels Direct feedback lets employees know how they are performing theirjobs 8b Research results on impact of j ob characteristics model High intrinsic motivation Highjob performance High job satisfaction Low absenteeism and turnover 8c Individual differences that impact the model Growthneed strength Knowledge and skills Satisfaction with work context ex pay bene ts job security relations with coworkers 9 Goal Setting Speci c difficult but attainable goals increase motivation and performance even when employees are not given extra extrinsic rewards for achieving the goals SMART Specific Measureable Attainable Relevant Time Specified Goals 9a Limits to Goal setting Employees don t have skills needed Employees have complicated tasks requiring all their attention and a lot of learning Employees need to be creative 9b 2 possible negative outcomes to setting difficult goals ask amanda 10 Equity Theory Explain theory Equity Theory Employees compare what they get from their job outcomes and what they contribute to their jobs inputs They then compare their own outcome input ratio to the outcomeinput ratio of a referent Unequal ratios create tension so employees are motivated to restore equity Referents are others who are seen as similar to oneself 10a Expectancy Theory Explain Know concepts of expectancy instrumentality and valence In order for employees to be motivated to perform desired behaviors at a high level Effort Performance Expectancy must be high Employees must perceive that if they try hard they can perform at a high level Performance gt Outcomes Instrumentality must be high Employees must perceive that if they perform at a high level they will receive certain outcomes Outcomes Valence must be high Employees must desire or want the outcomes they will receive ifthey perform at a high level 10b Ways to restore equity Change inputs or outcomes Change referents inputs or outcomes Change their perceptions of inputs or outcomes Change the referent Leave job or force reference to leave 10c Types of inequity and recognize examples of each 10d Implications of Equity Theory for managers What do you have to keep in mind to motivate people 1 1 Know various theories researchers have proposed that direct managers to pay attention to different intangible interests eg competition social support need for affiliation How does this impact job fit 12 In Visual Culture video what are the manager s interests and the employee s interests What could the manager have done differently to be more effective Pg 35 13 Impact of Reducing Uncertainty Uncertainty reduces motivation 13a How can Being a Coach help Sometimes a manager needs to take on the role of a coach who acts to help her new employee recognize that he can complete the task 13b Characteristics of effective goals SMART Speci c not vague Measureable by the manager and employee and that employees perceive to be Attainable but challenging Goals should be Relevant to the objectives that the manager wants to achieve Should be completed on Time 14 In the Experienced Obsolete Technician video what could the manager have done better pg39 15 Problems with punishment Only work if people are interested in avoiding punishment Sometimes employees resist threats to fight management Reasons may include Wanting to show their power to there management Show their coworkers that they can t be pushed around Management is threating their interests 15a Importance of rewarding correct behavior You are rewarding that person for a speci c behavior Do you not accidentally want to reward them for something else they did You are rewarding them for whatever is done to get the task completed Ifthe task you want done is completed but not the way you want 16 Know problem 5a The manager in the video Visual Culture shown on page 88 was unable to motivate his employee to act in the manner that he wanted Use the following written and verbal expert advice and SMART goals to develop a new plan to motivate the employee Write a description of this plan and explain why you selected it 17 Preparation to Negotiate What are the basic principles you need to apply that have been discussed in the book Understanding how psychological lters affect the way information is processed Identifying the interests of people involved Communicating with people so that you can establish a personal connection Giving positive feedback to people who exhibit actions that you want repeated 17a Which psychological filters cause many people to spend less time than they should preparing IKnow Better GetRid OfThe Problem anal Quickly 17b What do effective negotiators do before they start a negotiation Effective negotiators think about what their and what the other party s interests are before they start a negotiation 18 Know specialized preparations to negotiate Who am I negotiation with Do I know who the decision maker will be What do I know about the other negotiator Will this negotiation involve a one time deal or might it lead to a longerterm relationship What type of an how many issues might be involved What do I want to accomplish in this negotiation Why do Ithink the other negotiator is interested in negotiating with me What do I have to offer the other negotiator How can I explain or justify my offer to the other negotiator What will happen if I cannot reach my agreement with the other negotiator What is my BATNA Can I improve my BATNA 19 Difference between distributive and integrative negotiations Distributive negotiations winlose The only way one negotiator gains or wins something is by the other negotiator losing something Integrative negotiations The negotiators can work together to problem solve or brainstorm ways that allow them to integrate their interests in a way that allows both sides to win Often occur when there are multiple interests and one is relationshipbased 19b Are they mutually exclusive Pure winlose negotiations are rare in business Likewise many integrative negotiations in business still include distributive issues 19c Importance of multiple fair outcomes There is no single fair offer in negotiation Different people with different interests will arrive at different views of a fair offer 20 Know the details of the video where the customer was upset about his newspaper ad 21 Buffett and Salomon case Read PDF Chapter 5 pg5260 21a United Airlines case PDF pg 44 21b Video about photos being posted on the internet 22 BATNA Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement Good BATNA You have the con dence to walk away from an offer that is not in your best interests Bad BATNA You may have to reevaluate strategy and think about concessions to offer the other negotiator in order to get a deal 23 Why is money left on the table Negotiators fail to appreciate that There are often multiple interests involved in a negotiation Some interests are more important than others to each person in a negotiation The person with whom they are negotiating has different interests and likely values options differently than they do When there are multiple interests it is possible for both parties to win 7 a gain for one party does not necessarily mean the other party loses 24 Make sure to know the main points of all the videos and sidebar casesexamples in the book Yasure ok
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