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"Stages of Consciousness Chapter 4 (Part 2): Stages of Sleep and Sleep Disorders"

by: Olivia D'Andrea

"Stages of Consciousness Chapter 4 (Part 2): Stages of Sleep and Sleep Disorders" PSYCH-11672-001-201610

Marketplace > Kent State University > Psychlogy > PSYCH-11672-001-201610 > Stages of Consciousness Chapter 4 Part 2 Stages of Sleep and Sleep Disorders
Olivia D'Andrea
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover "Stages of Consciousness Chapter 4 (Part 2): Stages of Sleep and Sleep Disorders."
General Psychology
Dr. Joynes
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia D'Andrea on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-11672-001-201610 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Joynes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
States of Consciousness: Chapter 4 (Part 2) Stages of Sleep and Sleep Disorders *We sleep to conserve energy and restore our bodies.* *NEED evidence to prove processes that improve wear and tear from the day* o Get rid of biproducts: clean out/restore body every night to help brain work more efficiently Studying Sleep  EEG: records activity going on in cortex (surface of brain)  EOG: tells when muscles around eyes are activated (indicating REM sleep)  EMG: tells when muscles of arms are activated while asleep Stages of Sleep  Higher level consciousness: alert, attentive, actively thinking o Beta waves: small, close together; HIGH frequency  Lower level consciousness: relaxed, but awake; daydreaming o Alpha waves: NOT as high frequency (low blood pressure)  Stage 1: Drowsy sleep, easily woken up, “head nod,”, myoclonic jerks o Myoclonic jerks: neck muscles are relaxing; brain misinterprets like you’re falling (happens frequently when lying on back) o Begin to see “theta waves”  BIGGER than alpha waves  Stage 2: Decreased muscle activity, low sensitivity and irregular EEG patterns o Mostly “theta waves” and:  Sleep spindles: short bursts of high frequency waves and you’re NOT awake  K Complexes: tall, sharp, sudden wave forms  Stages 3 and 4: Deep sleep, difficult to rouse, restorative o Difficult to wake people up – feel groggy o “Slow-wave” sleep  “Delta waves” – giant waves and LOW frequency (high amplitude) o Not enough sleep: you WILL feel tired  Deep sleep is restorative o Rapid Eye Movement (REM): brain pattern similar to those with relaxed wakefulness  Desynchronized “Alpha” and “Theta” o Characteristics:  Rapid eye movement (EOG)  Skeletal muscle paralysis (EMG)  Dreaming  Dreams not processed in hippocampus  Brain releases chemical causing you to become paralyzed (if not, you would act out dream) o REM rebound: spend more time in REM next night because the body is making up for your deprived REM sleep  Sleep-deprived: Memory Problems o REM: important for processing/memorizing info o Brain development o Babies spend a lot of time in REM sleep  Insomnia: inability to fall asleep, waking in the night, or waking up too early (will be fatigued because of it) o Primary cause: anxiety/stress (activates norepinephrine) o MOST COMMON sleep disorder o 1 out of 5 people have difficulty sleeping o Body easily depends on a pill to sleep, but this is NOT the most effective  Sleep apnea: individuals stop breathing while asleep o Wakes you back up – startled (brain makes you breathe) o Wake up in panic! o Don’t get enough sleep o Ex: SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)  Babies do not have the reflexes to wake themselves up o Happens all night long; does NOT allow for enough deep sleep o Danger of driving/falling asleep  Sleep walking/talking: o Somnambulism: occurs during slow-wave sleep (non-REM sleep)  Doesn’t wake person up  If in sleep stage 1 or 2: WILL come out of it  Occurs in children more frequently o Night terrors: sudden arousal from sleep accompanied by intense fear and blood-curdling screaming  Typically occur in children  NOT nightmares o Narcolepsy: a REM sleep disorder involving sudden, overwhelming urge to sleep  “the sleep attack”  Random during the day; CANNOT resist the urge to sleep o Cataplexy: paralysis that accompanies REM sleep is suddenly activated while person is awake!  Activated during times of STRONG emotion  Stress makes it worse  Cataplexy can happen first, and then a sleep attack follows o Narcolepsy and cataplexy occur SIMULTANEOUSLY  Take meds and can be managed  Need a caregiver to make sure you don’t hurt yourself o Sleep paralysis: the normal paralysis of REM sleep continues after person wakes up  More common during times of stress  Continue to dream while awake  Hallucinations  NOT life threatening---just scary o REM Behavior Disorder: Mechanism-controlling paralysis during REM sleep fails to work properly.  Individual will act out his/her dreams  Non-specific: Insomnia and sleep apnea  Slow-wave: Sleep talking, sleep walking, and night terrors  REM sleep: Narcolepsy, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and REM behavior disorder


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