Note for REL 107 with Professor Zahn at KU
Note for REL 107 with Professor Zahn at KU
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Reviews for Note for REL 107 with Professor Zahn at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Islam Introduction and Origins 1132011 23700 PM The Beginnings of Islam 0 o What c When o Where Where and When o Western Arabian Peninsula Hijaz o More Specifically Makkah Mecca o Around 600 CE Western Arabia in the 6005 CE o Mostly desert people nomadic or settled in small villages or towns o Various tribes no central government o Loyalty through kinship clan and tribe Makkah Mecca o Ancient pilgrimage site Ka aba shrine o Trade near caravan route from Yemen to Syria o Ruled by the Quraysh tribe Wealthy from control of city and shrine The Ka aba before Islam o According to the stories Contained statues of every god worshiped in Arabia o Including images of Jesus Mary and Abraham o Part of the pilgrimage ritual before Islam and still today walking around the Ka aba 7 times Religion in Arabia before Islam o Most Arabs polytheistic o Few Jews or Christians but knowledge of Jewish and Christian biblical traditions o At least some Arabs traced origins back to Abraham s son Ismail Ishmael o Allah alilah the God supreme deity View of the Origins of the Ka aba in Islam o Built by Abraham and Ismail as a shrine to the One True God o Corrupted by later polytheism o The sons of Ismail had obscured belief in the one true God plunged the Arabian Peninsula into the darkness of idolatry Who Muhammad o Born ca 570 or so c Member of the ruling Quraysh tribe in Mecca o Raised by Grandfather and then Uncle o Ran a caravan company with his wife Khadija What The Qur an o Qur an means recitation that which is recited o Ora then written record of the angel Gabriel s revelations to Muhammad over a period of many years 610632 o Divided into Chapters called Suras Poetry in PreIslamic Arabia o Major form of artistic expression o Poets Entertainers historians ect o But also inspired speech soothsayers access to divine realm o So idea of divine truth revealed in poetryoral recitation was understandable Qur an in this context o Built on prestige of oral poetry o Led to oppostition o For when it was said unto them There is no Allah save Allah they were scornful and said Shall we forsake our gods for a mad poet o Major Difference 0 Not from a Jinn spirit but from the one God 0 Qur an emphasizes Muhammad is God s messenger not a soothsayer Why the Qur an s Main Points o Ethics care for the poor Critique of wealth disparity that had arisen in Mecca o Monotheism no god but God o But monotheism not just theologically different attacked basis of Mecca s economy polytheistic Ka aba shrine Timeline o 610 CE Beginning of revelation of the Qur an o Migration to Yathrib 0 Migration known as the Hijra o Becomes foundation for Muslim calendar 622 CE lAH after Hijra o Yathrib becomes known as Medinah city of the prophet Madinah and the Umma o Community governed by God s message Qur an and God s messenger Muhammad o Muslim community umma still used to designate all Muslims together like the church can mean all Christians o In Madinah political and religious order one Becomes paradigmmodel for later Muslim societies Timeline continued o 622630 Battles between Meccans and Muhammad s followers from Madinah o 630 CE Muhammad followers conquer Mecca purification removal of idols of the Ka aba o 632 CE Muhammad s Death People of the Book o Jews and Christians worship same God have same morals as Muslims o Special status of Jews and Christians under Muslim rile not forced to convert o Disagreements between Bible and Qur an attributed to corruptions introduced by Jews and Christians Qu ran 1132011 23700 PM Basics o 114 suras divided into Meccan or Medinan o Organized by length not chronological o No continuous storyline Mecca and Medina o Mecca 610622 CE Before the Hijra 0 Usually shorter Hymnic or poetic o Broader themes God Judgment Ethics o Medina 622632 CE After Hijra o Tend to be longer less poetic o More specifics regulations for the community Early Meccan Suras examples o Sura 1 The Opening recited in prayer liturgy everyday life o Sura 90 The Ground Care for the poor o Sura 99 The Quaking Judgment will reveal everyone s behavior o Sura 112 Unity Radical Monotheism Medinan Suras Examples o 2183187 The annual fast o 515 Dietary regulations o 56 Washing before prayer o Muslim Islam Submitting to God Abraham and Islam o Abraham and Ismail build the Ka aba o Abraham Ismail Isaac Jacob all were Muslims Submitted to god o Same revelation to Abraham Patriarchs Moses Jesus and Muhammad o Jews and Christians have veered off the right path Biblical traditions in the Qur an o Adam in the Garden Naming the animals fallen angels 23039 0 Compare rabbinic midrash o 3772148 List of Believing Servants 0 Abraham Midrash again destroying father s idols son as willing sacrificial victim 0 Noah Abraham Isaac Moses Aaron Elijah Lot Jonah Qur an and the Bible o Refers to many as biblical figures o These figures seen as Muslims True followers of Allah o Extra biblical traditions as well as biblical stories Qur an in Muslim Life o Recitation o Arabic language 0 Art The Qur an in Muslim Life o Recitation o Arabic Language Historically speaking 0 Art The Canonization of the Qur an o Muhammad died 632 o Text standardized by third caliph Uthman by around 650 o Associated with a single person Muhammad and became authoritative scripture very quickly Contrast from Christianity and Judaism Extending and Interpreting Scripture 1132011 23700 PM Shari a The Way o Rules providing guidance on how Muslims are to act in every situation o Shari a as way compare to Jewish Halakhah Going Walking o What is Shari a and how did it develop A Familiar Problem o God s will uniquely revealed in Qur an o Legal material in Qur an Only a small percent Countless legal issues on which the Qur an is silent o Finite Cannon that needs to address infinite situations Sunna Muhammad s Example o Traditions of the Prophet What Muhammad said and did o Passed down through oral tradition as hadiths Report Story o Be clear We know about Sunna Muhammad s example o Originally Oral records of Muhammad s words and actions o Collected and compiled in the 8th9th c CE o Collectors sorted through to determine most authentic hadiths Reason to be Skeptical o Most of the strongest hadiths justified what people were doing anyway o Providing authority for common practice o Compare Rabbinic Midrash canonization of NT Hadith and Hadith Collections o Additional authoritativecanonical source of law and practice o Albukhari claims to have examined 500000 hadiths and chosen only 2600 of them so lots of sifting was done c Total six authoritative Hadith collections in Sunni Islam Still need for interpretation o After Hadith was collected it too became fixed o Back to square one o How to address situations not considered by Qur an or Hadith o Development of fiqh study of Islamic law Science of figuring out through interpretation what the law should be Development of Islamic Law o Early on lots of variation up to judges o 8th9th century attempts to standardize law 0 Ulama plural of alim learned one class of religious scholars 0 Different legal schools of thought begin to develop 0 Debate How much of a role should individual reasoning ijtihad play Must decisions be explicitly supported by Qur ansunna AShafii and the Four Sources of Jurisprudence AIShafii died 819 o Besides Qur an 1 and Sunna 2 0 Community consensus ijma 3 o Analogical reasoning 4 o Limit placed on ijtihad individual reasoning o 4 usal alfiqh roots sources of law eventually generally accepted Fixing of Sharia o Theoretically continual change possible o Consensus by around 10th century Everything important had been decided o Four legal schools relatively minor differences o New emphasis on adhering to traditionprecedent o Closing of the gates of ijtihad no more independent legal reasoning The inevitable but o Some further clarification of minor issues o Shi ites reject consensus and retain ijtihad o Individual Sunnis sometimes claimed right to ijtihad Calls to reopen the gate of ijtihad o Come from both ends of the political spectrum o Reformers want a more liberal or rationalist interpretation of Islamic tradition o Extremists Want to overturn longstanding consensus including for some consensus forbidding violence against innocents Judaism Compared to Islam o Judaism Oral Torah comes from rabbis 0 Teaching authorized because they came from Mt Sinai o Islam Hadiths come from Muhammad o The teacher is authorized because it is Muhammad o Consensus rulings go back to Muhammad because he said that consensus rulings are valid o Christianity Teacher is authorized because it goes back to Apostolic succession o Protestantism goes back to scripture not teachers Also individual interpretation Worship and Ritual in Islam 1132011 23700 PM Worship o Reenactingrecreating key events o Expressing and reinforcing convictions o Rituastoos communities use to reinforce their basic values o Confirming community identity The Five Pillars of Islam o The Shahadah Witnessing to the unity of God and Muhammad o Salat Ritual Prayer o Zakat Almsgiving o Ramadan Fasting o Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca Service o Arabic ibada 5 pillars 5 ibadat servicesworships o Hebrew avodah comes from same root o Acts of worship as service to God remember original context of avodahtempe The Shahadah Witnessing c There is no god but God Muhammad is the Messenger of God o Expresses fundamental doctrines of Islam o Only thing necessary for conversion o Root of other four pillars al prescribed in Qur an 5times Daily Prayer Salat o Dawn noon midafternoon sunset evening o Always includes Fatiha Sura 1 and Shahada o Series of prayersQur an passages movements Facing Mecca the qibla o Can be done alone or in groups except for Friday noon Salat for men Ritual Purity o Purification through washing needed before Salat o Ritual Impurity not sinful but not appropriate for worship of God o Effect constant mindfulness awareness The Call to Prayer adhan o Chanted by the muadhdhin mueszzin Almsgiving zakat o Fixed tax on wealth to be distributed to the poor o Makes service to the poor into one of the main ways of worshipping God o Zakat means purification Fasting during Ramadan o Ramadan o Ninth month of Muslim calendar 0 Month in which revelation of Qur an began o Sunuptosundown fast o Meanings 0 Remember core event of Islam Revelation of Qur an 0 Core values Identify with those who are hungry 0 Special time for reflection spirituality remember human dependence upon God The Night of Power o Night of beginning of Revelation 25th 27th or 29th of Ramadan o Special Holiness and power not just then but now c To be spent in prayer and vigil Sacred Time Festivals o Ramadan itself as sacred time o End of Ramadan Eid alfitr festival of Fastbreaking o Eid alAdha Feast of Sacrifice Recreates Abraham s near sacrifice of Ismail End of Hajj The Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca o Every Muslim who can afford it should go once in their lifetime o Series of specific prescribed rites o Occurs on specific days of specific month last month of the year Significances of the Hajj o Encounter with the Sacred 0 Circling to Ka aba 0 Special purification rites 0 Special clothes for men 0 Special Behaviors More Significances Recreating History of the Hajj o Muhammad and first Muslims o Abraham Hagar Ismail 0 Running Ceremony Hagar s search for water 0 Drinking from Zamzam spring Water God provided for Hagar and Ismail o Stoning pillars Abraham stoning the devil o Sacrifice of animals Eid aladha Abraham s sacrifice More Significances of the Hajj o Rite of Passage Symbolic death and new identity 0 Reminder of mortality dangerous journey 0 New title Hajji one who has nade the Hajj o Community there is no identity whatsoever save as Muslims Jihad o Root meaning struggle or exertion Qur an usually exertion in the way of God o Ijtihad Independent legal reasoning same root struggle for right meaning o Violent sense secondary lesser jihad o Classically violent struggle allowed only defensively never allowed killing of innocents or other Muslims o Today s global jihadism rejected by most as unIslamic Shi I Islam 1132011 23700 PM Shi I vs Sunni o Sunni Short for People of the Sunna and the community Self designation Shi i From Shi atu Ali the Party of Ali o Note Shi I is an adjective Shi I Islam Shi a is a collective noun The Shi a Succeeding Muhammad o Muhammad did not clearly name a successor o Some supported Ali Cousin and soninlaw of Muhammad o But First followers from Mecca The Companions gathered and selected Abu Bakr as new leader The Caliph o Caliph successor or representative or deputy of Muhammad o Caliph took over Muhammad s political and military authority not religious authority o First Three all companions o Adu Bakr o Umar o Uthman Ali s Caliphate o Uthman assassinated Ali finally becomes Caliph 656 o Rebellion Uthman s cousin Muawiyah proclaims himself Caliph 660 o All killed before he can react o Muawiyah becomes first Caliph of Umayyad dynasty Ali s Sons o Older son Hasan Peace treaty with Muawiyah o Hasan dies 669Rit o Muawiyah breaks treaty o Ali s younger son Husayn heads to Iraq to start a revolt o Husayn intercepted and killed by Caliph s troops at Karbala 680 Origins of Shi ism o Shi atu Essentially a political party o What made this group into a distinct religious movement o Rituals Commemorating Husayn s Martyrdom o Shi i idea of atonement through mourning o Ritual Recreation Events of month of Muharram o Lamentation Assemblies o Reenactments Passion Plays 0 Funeral Processions matam including breastbeating or selfflagellation The Imams o Sunni Islam Imam just someone who leads prayer o Shi I Islam The Imams were a special type of inspired religious leader descended from Ali Different Ideas about Muhammad s Successors o Sunni Caliphs have political and Military leadership o Shi i Imams have Religious and Spiritual leadership as well o Imams No revelation but inspiration infallible and sinless like Muhammad The Shi I Imam o Was inspired had living spirit of Prophet o Designated by God o Only authoritative interpreter of Qur an Translates Revelation for humans A Fixed Number of Imams o Ali Hasan Husayn etc Hereditary transmission o At some point transmission stops Last Imam not dead but in hiding occultation o Hidden Imam will return as the Mahdi at end of time The Mahdi o Messianic restorer who will appear at the end of time o Not exclusively Shi ite but not connected w Imamate by Sunnis Twelvers and Seveners o Twelver Shi ites 12th Imam is the one in hiding o Sevener Shi ites 7th Imam was the last The Shi I Shahada c There is no god but God Muhammad is the Messenger of God and Ali is God s Executor Wali o Wali One given authority by a lord or master Shi I Interpretation o Only Imam can interpret Qur an according to its true meaning o For Shi a true meaning is hiddenesoteric meaning c When interpreted properly Qur an supports idea Law and Authority o Separate Hadith collections Words and deeds of Prophet and Imams o Separate Shi I Ulama preserved Imams teachings o Sources of Law 0 Rejected consensus o Embraced ijtihad independent reasoning mujtahid one who uses ihtihad Sufism 1132011 23700 PM Features of Mysticism Esoteric Otherworldly Focus not on daytoday life Seeks more direct experience of God Immanent God 0 Humans have something in common with the divine o Godthe divine pervades universe Origins of Sufism o Ascetic practices for example fasting mourning giving away possessions o Trust in God God will provide Indifference to worldly things like possessions o Name Sufi from woolen garment ascetics would wear Arabic sufwool Classical Sufism o Goal is union with God o Selfannihilation Spirit ruh not Ego nafs takes over human soul qalb o Human completely swallowed up in dissolved in God 0 Husayn alHallaj 10th century I am the Truth I am one with God Achieving Union with God o Need special knowledge of God o Not cognition knowing something but emotionintuition knowing someone o Love 0 Love as basis of creation 0 Love annihilates the ego 0 Compare Christian Mysticism But in Chr Less focus on love as selfannihilation Tariqa The Way to God o Spiritual journey towards unity with God o Allegorical description The Conference of the Birds Monism ahadiyya Oneness o Qur an Go is allpervading and all knowing o For Sufis God is everywhere and everything reality is God o Monism all things have a single essence o Union with God Awareness of this oneness it exists whether you know it or not More on Tariqa o Mot just one way Like climbing a Mountain o Different Sufi masters would have different ways o Fixed series of steps or stages o Always supervised need a guide The Sheik Pir o Has authority as one who has completed the journey o Was one the disciple of another Pir o All trace their education back to Muhammad o Muhammad s Night Journey Humans can experience God directly Sufi Orders o Disciples clustered around a master o Gradually developed into Orders 0 Special tariqa o Tariqa passed down from foundermaster to appointed successor o Reverence for founder as wali friend of God Saint veneration very popular but also opposed by some traditionalists o Seeking immediate experience of God o Esoteric knowledge need guide to Journey to God o Leadership structures Pirs Sheiks o Regarded as specially holy 0 Pass on their spiritual authority to successors Sufism and Sharia o Most Sufis Followed usual Muslim law and practice o But to Sufis law didn t help in journey towards God 0 Worldly vs Otherworldly Breaking down the dualities o Monism God is everywhere and everything o Dualities paired opposites have no place Love knows of neither faith or blasphemy o Point is to get beyond earthly dualities including traditional rules and experience God s oneness Sufi Worship o Dhikr roughly zikar Remembrance of god o Many different forms verbal silent music dance etc o Help worshiper Strip away ego and become one with God Islam in the Modern World 1132011 23700 PM Modern Challenges o Judaism and Christianity 0 Sources of Knowledge Reason vs Revelation 0 Religion as a Private matter Government no longer dictates religion o Islam European Colonization 0 Not just ideas are challenging Also political situation 0 How do we deal with loss of sovereignty Threats to the Muslim World o Foreign political and economic control o Foreign violence and cruelty eg suppression of Indian Revolt o Assault on Islam Colonizers goal not just colonization but Christianization Muslim responses to modernity o Can t be separated from context of European Colonization o Enlightenment ideas usually associated with western colonizers Responses to What o Perceived decline of Muslim society fragmentation loss of military and economic power o Culminating in colonial control o How have we gotten to this point and how do we revitalize Muslim society o Immediate challenge not just Enlightenment Ideas but loss of autonomy Traditionalist vs Modernist o Issue Attitude toward change historical development c Modernists Islam has changed in the past and can change to adapt to new circumstances o Traditionalists Islam has basically been fixed from the beginning and has no need for major changes Modernists Secular vs Islamic o Issue Role of religion in public life o Secular Modernists Religion should be a private matter 0 Did NOT advocate giving up Islam 0 Willing to adopt Western Ideas ways of governing o Islamic Modernists Islam is a complete way of life can t make it private Traditionalists Revivalist vs Conservative o Issue Status quo or return to roots o Conservatives Traditional Ulama scholars wanted to just keep going as before status quo o Revivalists Islam has turned away from the straight path Back to roots 0 Ulama may not always be right promoted ijtihad individual reasoning 0 Back to Qur an and Sunna Strip away unislamic accretions eg Sufi Shi i practices Secularists Sir Sayyid Ahmad Kahn India 18171898 0 Islamic renewal through European education 0 RATIONALIST True Islam of Qur an totally in accord with reason Sharia mostly human product of Ulama 0 Accepted British rule in India o Many postcolonial rulers eg Nasser in Egypt accepted western secular forms of government Islamic Modernists o Common thread Islam as a blueprint for public life o Muhammad Iqbal India 18751938 0 No division between sacred and secular Sharia as proper basis for Muslim society 0 BUT Sharia is dynamic and open to change 0 Democracy as a core principle of Islam elected representatives should determine law Jamal adDin AlAfghani Egypt 183897 0 Islam as way of life political system 0 Sharia is open to change 0 Western scientific principles really part of Muslim heritage Must reclaim reason and science Muhammad Abdu qupt 18491905 0 Sharia must be subject to rational discourse o Reinterpret traditional ideas in light of modern thought II Revivalism in Islam o Importance of theme of restorationreform Muhammad himself restores religion of Abraham o Revivalists always present throughout history 0 Eg AlGhazali 11th c Ibn Taymiyya 13th14th c 0 Return to pristine Islam Prophet s community at Madina the norm o Common argument ijtihad independent reasoning permissible ulama can be wrong 18thcentury Revivalism o Even before colonization fragmentation of Muslim society called for reform o India Shah Wali Allah 0 Return to Qur an and Sunna through ijtihad o Reform Sufism and purify Islam from unislamic accretions o Arabia Muhammad alWahhab 0 Strip Islam back to its pure Arab essentials 0 Violence against Sufis Shi a any opponents o Cooperation with tribe of Saud The Muslim Brotherhood o Founded in Egypt by Hasan alBannah 1928 o Originally a social movement return to Islamic Values to address issues like poverty o Ideal as for Modernists Government according to the principles of Islam o Unlike Modernists No interaction with Western thought necessary Islam in traditional sense is selfsufficient o Role of historical circumstances Western Colonialism o All these different voices different models still present today o Muslims in Europe and America have faced somewhat different challenges assimilation etc Religions and Change Part I Whose Madinah1132011 23700 PM Major themes for the next few days o Core ideassymbols o Diversity and change Role of INTERPRETATION o How do I understand the core ideas and symbols of my tradition 0 Core ideassymbols can be understood in different ways Islam and Democracy Background o Political orientation of much modern Islamic thought Islam as a way of life o Two contributing factors 0 Community focus of Islam not to be restricted to individual or private religion from very beginning 0 Effects of colonialism How do we regain our own autonomy What should an Islamic State kook like o Dramatically different interpretations o Socialist monarchy elected legislature clerical rule military rule other 0 Islamic law Traditional or open to change Who gets to decide o Multiple forms of government have claimed to be Islamic Egypt Saudi Arabia Libya Pakistan etc A Common Thread Madinah as Model o Ideal Muhammad s community in Madinah o But who gets to say what that community was like Alsan s Premise o Democracy doesn t have to be American Style with strict separation of religion from public life o Many democracies can and do have a moralreligious framework as a basis Eg Great Britain Alsan Islamic Values and Democracy o Consensus from time of Prophet s community in MadinahL what s best for the community is decided by the community o Consistent with basic idea of democracy as rule by the people o Pluralism and Human Rights are key elements in democracy Protection of and respect for Jews and Christians and others in Islam Qur an s advocacy for the rights of women and the poor At root there can be no compulsion in religion Consider this question If Muhammad s community in Madinah was essentially democratic Why doesn t everyone agree that Islamic societies should be pluralistic democracies INTERPRETATION An Example Aslan s view of the Hadith Largely incented to serve needs of later community Often overturned more progressive ideas in Qur an eg on women s rights What would a traditionalist member of the Ulama about the Hadith Would say they are an absolutely correct record of what Muhammad said and did So tell us what Muhammad s community in Madinah was like So this community wasn t as progressive or democratic as Asian claims Same Symbol Different Interpretations People of a given religion may agree that certain symbols or ideas are important But they will interpret those symbols or ideas differently Religion and Interpretation Part II Christianity Homosexuality and the Bible 1132011 23700 PM Movie For the Bible Tells Me So Key Points o Both sides use the Bible to support their position o Nobody is saying don t listen to the Bible o Instead What tools should be used to read the Bible How do we interpret o Both Sides If you just read the Bible correctly my way you ll see that I m right De Bordenave s Position on Consecration of Gay Bishops o Clearly goes against the Bible o The Bible is the eternal infallible Word of God and no new information has surfaced in the 21St century that contradicts God s revelation o Those who support the ordination have abandoned the Bible don t see the Bible as God s word Johnson s Position on De Bordenave s Position o First Inconsistent with Anglican tradition to imply declare Bible infallible o Anglicans have always seen revelation as an ongoing process 0 Role of church in interpreting Scripture similar to Catholic idea o Second Accords Bible greater honor to read it in light of cultural context 0 Use tools of reason and science to understand biblical author s positions 0 Understand Scripture as record of interaction between divine and human AnglicansEpiscopals and Openly Gay Bishops o Both sides see the Bible as important o But how should it be used 0 Human record of divine revelation 0 Or itself Very words of God s revelation o Both sides see themselves as representatives of the traditional Anglican position Religion and Interpretation Part III Summing Up1132011 2370 Religion as Interpretation o Core symbols shared by all o Debate over those symbols 0 Meaning 0 Significance Example Christian attitudes toward slavery 19th century o Abolitionists No authentic Christian can own slaves The bible is about liberty o Slaveholders slavery is explicitly approved by the Bible o Issue not Do you read the Bible but How you read the bible Example What Makes Something Kosher o Both sides agree Oral Torah is important o But what s the nature of Oral Torah How much can it change 0 Should kosher laws change to reflect new situations 0 Or should they stay the same because that s how it s always been o Both sides say their way is the most true to Judaism Three TakeAway Ideas o Context historical geographical cultural o Religions develop in certain contexts and change as context changes o Diversity 0 People in different contexts or from different backgrounds o Interpretation 0 Interpretation helped create Judaism Christianity and Islam doesn t just come later
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