States of Consciousness part 2
States of Consciousness part 2 PSYC-11762-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Thompson on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-11762-001 at Kent State University taught by Robin L. Joynes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
States of Consciousness (Part 2) Wednesday, February 24, 2016 7:37 PM Why do we sleep? We honestly do not know o They have said it may be adaptive We evolved to sleep because we discovered it was useful to us in some way Maybe it’s a way to conserve energy o Maybe it is restorative Maybe there is a process that goes on while we sleep to somehow "recharge" our body Studying Sleep You are sleeping while electrodes monitor what goes on in the brain and your muscles during different stages of sleep o Electroencephalogram (EEG) Tracks and records brain wave patterns o Electrocularograms (EOG) When muscles around your eyes are moving o Electromyograms (EMG) When muscles in the arms and legs are active Stages of sleep Stages of wakefulness o Higher level Consciousness Alert, attentive, actively thinking Beta waves High frequency waves o Lower level Consciousness Relaxed, but awake - Day dreaming Alpha waves Low frequency waves Larger appearance and farther apart than beta waves Stage 1 o This is drowsy sleep, you can be easily woken up, you might have myoclonic jerks Myoclonic jerks are when you are jerking awake. The neck muscles start to relax and your head starts to tilt just a little bit so your brain thinks you're falling and it tries to catch you o You start to see theta waves These waves are not as uniform and are far apart Stage 2 o Decreased muscle activity, low sensitivity and irregular EEG patterns o Mostly theta waves and sleep spindles and K complexes You are not as sensitive to outside stimuli Muscle tension goes flat This is a quiet sleep, you tend not to move a whole bunch Most common during naps o Sleep spindles Sudden burst of high frequency Still not awake though o K complexes Tall sharp sudden wave from out of nowhere Stage 3 and 4 o Deep sleep, difficult to rouse, restorative o See delta waves Slow wave sleep Low frequency Very big and very far apart Very difficult to wake someone They will be very groggy and angry Disoriented o If you don’t get enough deep sleep you will feel tired even if you got 8 hours of sleep Rapid Eye Movement (REM) o Brain pattern similar to those with relaxed wakefulness o Desynchronized alpha and theta waves Less uniform Your brain is sending signals as if you are awake o Your eyelids are moving back and forth You are dreaming during this stage o Characteristics Rapid eye movement (EOG) Skeletal muscle paralysis (EMG) Your EMG goes silent Brain releases chemical during REM sleep where you cannot move Kinda weird but it’s a good thing so you do not act out your dreams Dreaming You often do not remember dreams because they are not processes by your hippocampus Sleep patterns through the night o You spend a little while in deep sleep Get most of the deep sleep at beginning of the night o Rem sleep you get in the early morning Very important for processing memories Sleep Disorders Insomnia o Inability to fall asleep, waking up in the night or waking up to early o Stress is the primary cause of insomnia This will happen to everyone at some point Very common Different for everybody o Anything that causes an increase in body temperature will induce sleep o Anything that causes a decrease in body temperature will make it harder for you to sleep Sleep Apnea o Individuals stop breathing while they are sleeping o Very common especially in those who snore You wake up startled because your brain makes you breath This is what SIDS in infants is For whatever reason their brain doesn’t tell them to breath and they suffocate Sleep walking/talking o Somnambulism Occurs during slow wave sleep o Sleep talking You can sound completely awake, but you are not o Sleep walking During stage 3 and 4 Deepest sleep Like zombies Night Terrors o Sudden arousal from sleep accompanied by intense fear and blood curdling screaming These are not nightmares 99% of the time it occurs in children Narcolepsy o A REM sleep disorder involving sudden, overwhelming urge to sleep Known as the "sleep attack" People cannot resist it, they just fall asleep People with this could be studying and cant resist the urge to sleep and pass out Cataplexy o Paralysis that accompanies REM sleep is suddenly activated while person is awake This usually comes along with Narcolepsy o They becomes paralyzed by chemical brain uses to prevent you from moving during REM sleep, but it happens when you are awake Sleep Paralysis o The normal paralysis of REM sleep continues after a person wakes up o Usually happens when you are stressed Can hallucinate for long or short periods of time REM behavior disorder o Mechanism controlling paralysis during REM sleep fails to work properly. Individual will act out their dreams You will act out everything you dream This is extremely rare o Put this person in dangerous situations People with this can even leave their homes and try and drive cars o Movie "sleep walk with me" follows a guy who has this disorder Overview o Non-specific (Occur in anybody) Insomnia Sleep apnea o REM Sleep (these are malfunctions in REM sleep) Narcolepsy Cataplexy Sleep paralysis REM behavior disorder o Slow-wave (in deep sleep, stages 3 and 4) Sleep talking Sleep walking Night terrors
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