HDFS Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy
HDFS Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy 629152
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 629152 at penn state berks taught by Krysta Murillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see The Development of Children in Child Development at penn state berks.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy I. Physical Growth During the first year, babies: Triple in weight Grow about 10 inches Changes in body proportions Head to legs ratio Gender differences II. Brain Development Increased myelination of neurons Development of prefrontal cortex Growth of languagerelated areas Increased synchrony among the brain areas Brain and Behavior As a result More systematic problem solving Voluntary control of behavior Acquisition of language Brain and Experience Effects of prolonged deprivation Ex: studies of Romanian orphans Effects of lack of experience Experienceexpectant Experiencedependent III. Motor Development Fine motor skills Gross motor skills Increased ability to explore environment Fine motor skills Involve the development and coordination of small muscles Reaching and grasping Manual dexterity By age 2 feed and dress themselves turn book pages cut paper string beads stack blocks Gross Motor Skills: Involve the large muscles of the body and make locomotion possible Crawling By 8 to 9 months Wariness of heights Walking Cultural variations Control Elimination Maturation of sensory pathways From reflex to control Must learn to associate sensory signals with need to eliminate When to “hold it” Cultural Influences IV. Cognitive Development: The Great Debate Piaget’s Stage Theory Sensorimotor intelligence at birth Representational thinking begins around 18 months Piaget’s Stage of Sensorimotor Development Acquisition of Knowledge Motor actions Directed at environment Guided by senses Sensorimotor Substages Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions 4 to 8 months Repeating actions that involve objects Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 8 to 12 months Displaying intentionality, engaging in goaldirected behavior Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions 12 to 18 months Deliberately varying their actions, thus experimenting Substage 6: Beginning of Symbolic Representation 18 to 24 months Basing their actions on representations Important for problem solving, symbolic play, deferred imitation, and the use of language Cross cultural studies Piaget’s observations have been widely replicated around the world Challenges Both to the theory and methods in the past two decades V. Conceptual Development Object Permanence The understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight Two Explanations of Conceptual Development Piaget Alternative Perspective Alternative Approaches Measuring Object Permanence Violation of Expectations Methods Dynamic Systems Approach Role of Experience Violation of Expectations Method Habituate babies to a particular event and then present two variants of the event – one that is “possible” under normal circumstances, and one that is “impossible” Study Results Capable of representation as young as 2 ½ months Dynamic Systems Approach –Cognitive development in infancy involves not a shift from sensorimotor to conceptual intelligence but growing abilities to coordinate all the various systems involved in sensorimotor and conceptual intelligence. Role of Experience Preference for “novel” objects Preference for “familiar” objects Understanding Other Properties of the Physical World Initial grasp of various physical laws as young as 3 months Violation of expectations method Ex:law of gravity Reasoning about Objects Challenges to Piaget's view of cognitive development Counting CauseEffect Relationship Categorization Changes in categorization abilities Improved perceptual abilities Changes in both perceptual features and conceptual categories VI. The Growth of Attention and Memory Significance of attention and memory Each plays a role in previously discussed developments Attention Memory The Process of Attention Four distinct phases: I. StimulusDetection Reflex II. Stimulus Orienting III. Sustained Attention IV. Attention Termination Distinguished by changes in heart rate Attention Processing information takes time Younger children need more time to process Simple vs. complex stimuli Memory Development of procedural memory Time to forget procedure 2 months:12 days 6 months: 2 weeks Longer if visual reminder Shift from relying on implicit memory to explicit memory Implicit Memory Recognizing what has been experienced before Explicit Memory Recalling absent objects and events without a reminder VII. Implications During this brief period, infants undergo enormous physical and cognitive changes with astonishing implications for future development Brain Development Physical Development Cognitive Development
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