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HDFS Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy

by: Jaime Dolan

HDFS Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy 629152

Marketplace > penn state berks > Child Development > 629152 > HDFS Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy
Jaime Dolan
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Main Points of Chapter 5
The Development of Children
Krysta Murillo
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 629152 at penn state berks taught by Krysta Murillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see The Development of Children in Child Development at penn state berks.

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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 5 Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy  I. Physical Growth  ­During the first year, babies: ­Triple in weight ­Grow about 10 inches  ­Changes in body proportions  ­Head to legs ratio ­Gender differences  II. Brain Development  ­Increased myelination of neurons ­Development of prefrontal cortex ­Growth of language­related areas ­Increased synchrony among the brain areas Brain and Behavior  ­As a result  ­More systematic problem solving  ­Voluntary control of behavior  ­Acquisition of language  Brain and Experience  ­Effects of prolonged deprivation  ­Ex: studies of Romanian orphans  ­Effects of lack of experience  ­Experience­expectant  ­Experience­dependent  III. Motor Development  ­Fine motor skills ­Gross motor skills  ­Increased ability to explore environment  ­Fine motor skills ­Involve the development and coordination of small muscles ­Reaching and grasping  ­Manual dexterity  ­By age 2  ­feed and dress themselves  ­turn book pages  ­cut paper  ­string beads ­stack blocks ­Gross Motor Skills: ­Involve the large muscles of the body and make locomotion possible ­Crawling ­By 8 to 9 months ­Wariness of heights  ­Walking  ­Cultural variations  Control Elimination  ­Maturation of sensory pathways  ­From reflex to control  ­Must learn to associate sensory signals with need to eliminate ­When to “hold it” ­Cultural Influences  IV. Cognitive Development: The Great Debate ­Piaget’s Stage Theory  ­Sensorimotor intelligence at birth ­Representational thinking begins around 18 months  Piaget’s Stage of Sensorimotor Development  ­Acquisition of Knowledge  ­Motor actions  ­Directed at environment ­Guided by senses Sensorimotor Substages  ­Substage 3: Secondary Circular Reactions  ­4 to 8 months ­Repeating actions that involve objects ­Substage 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions ­8 to 12 months  ­Displaying intentionality, engaging in goal­directed behavior  ­Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions  ­12 to 18 months  ­Deliberately varying their actions, thus experimenting  ­Substage 6: Beginning of Symbolic Representation  ­18 to 24 months ­Basing their actions on representations  ­Important for problem solving, symbolic play, deferred imitation, and the use of  language ­Cross cultural studies ­Piaget’s observations have been widely replicated around the world ­Challenges ­Both to the theory and methods in the past two decades V. Conceptual Development  ­Object Permanence  ­The understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight ­Two Explanations of Conceptual Development  ­Piaget  ­Alternative Perspective  Alternative Approaches  ­Measuring Object Permanence  ­Violation of Expectations Methods ­Dynamic Systems Approach  ­Role of Experience ­Violation of Expectations Method ­Habituate babies to a particular event and then present two variants of the event – one  that is “possible” under normal circumstances, and one that is “impossible”  ­Study Results  ­Capable of representation as young as 2 ½ months ­Dynamic Systems Approach –Cognitive development in infancy involves not a shift from sensorimotor to conceptual  intelligence but growing abilities to coordinate all the various systems involved in sensorimotor  and conceptual intelligence. ­Role of Experience ­Preference for “novel” objects  ­Preference for “familiar” objects  Understanding Other Properties of the Physical World  ­Initial grasp of various physical laws as young as 3 months ­Violation of expectations method Ex:law of gravity  Reasoning about Objects  ­Challenges to Piaget's view of cognitive development  ­Counting  ­Cause­Effect Relationship ­Categorization  ­Changes in categorization abilities  ­Improved perceptual abilities  ­Changes in both perceptual features and conceptual categories  VI. The Growth of Attention and Memory ­Significance of attention and memory ­Each plays a role in previously discussed developments ­Attention  ­Memory  The Process of Attention  ­Four distinct phases: I. Stimulus­Detection Reflex II. Stimulus Orienting  III. Sustained Attention  IV. Attention Termination  ­Distinguished by changes in heart rate Attention  ­Processing information takes time  ­Younger children need more time to process  ­Simple vs. complex stimuli  Memory  ­Development of procedural memory ­Time to forget procedure  ­2 months:1­2 days  ­6 months: 2 weeks  ­Longer if visual reminder  ­Shift from relying on implicit memory to explicit memory  ­Implicit Memory ­Recognizing what has been experienced before ­Explicit Memory ­Recalling absent objects and events without a reminder VII. Implications  ­During this brief period, infants undergo enormous physical and cognitive changes with  astonishing implications for future development ­Brain Development  ­Physical Development  ­Cognitive Development


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