ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #5
ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #5 ARCH 2243 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
2-15-16 Authority and Subversion: Michelangelo and Mannerism in Florence I. New Sacristy – Medici Chapel – Florence, Italy – 16 cent. – Michelangelo – Renaissance Mannerism Precedent oMannerism Informed misuse of classical language Personalizing and deforming classical forms oThe Medici Chapel Old and new sacristy oInert white plaster oGrey pietra serena stone oCreamy white carrara marble oHis changes Adds a mezzanine to create a taller more proportional Signature Style oPilasters are moved off of the corner oVolute/Consuls are enlarged but you can’t tell if they are hanging off the cornice or so big due to the cornice being very heavy oTabernacle – niche where you put a statue Elements of great classical rule Broken pediment Pilasters have kinda two capitals (maybe one is a frieze ??) Very narrow shelf can’t put anything on/in it Theory oHis sculptures always look in distress or heavy oHis architecture mimics this oInterested in anatomy over proportions oBody Metaphor Anatomy Physical perceptual He thought that in order to compare architecture with the body you can not just use its proportions but the anatomy and everything else about it Symbolism oAll these crowded members by huge tabernacles – adds extra stress oCrowded ground floor of a mausoleum oSome details have a scaly design … uneasy skin symbol oAll this makes you want to travel up (ground level is earth and above is heaven) 2-15-16 oHis rondels float instead of Brunelleschi’s that almost touch what’s around it The idea of being higher up = heaven = less gravity oNo more gray members in the dome resolving in a perfect circle in the center th II. Laurentian Library – Florence, Italy – 16 Cent. – Michelangelo – Renaissance Mannerism Exploiting Site Constraints oStrives in a world of constraints Ambiguous games with structure oYou are not sure if the pilasters are structural or ornamental They are indeed somewhat structural oHe made the walls look super super thin oThe ceiling panels were slightly recessed to make it look thin oThe recesses in the walls are apparent but not very large to show that there are recesses but not enough room to make huge ones oVolutes are weightless and just hang Theory oOriginally design he didn’t want it that tall oEnds with a short attic oThe pope didn’t like the idea of skylights so he had to make it taller in order to make a clerestory orelation of form to the feeling it denotes oCorners come together with two niches pushing three columns together and using entasis to create a really crowded feeling oChoking effect in the corner cornice oCorners are mating rather than meeting oComing out from the staircase there is view of a blank wall … column or niche Ambiguity and Structure oColumns are supposed to be structural but they don’t look that structural cause they are so close together and close to the niches oMakes them look decorative though 2-15-16 Mannerism oColumns are narrower at the bottom than the top Reverses natural way oVolutes or S-forms Act as if they are supporting things Animating Architecture oItalians are the ones who made the staircase oSpill out from the top oRounded and get wider and wider as you go down oHighly polished 2-17-16 Authority and Subversion: Michelangelo and Sangallo in Rome I. The Capitoline – Rome, Italy – 16 Cent. – Michelangelo – Renaissance Context oAlways supposed to be a civic center oNot an ideal piazza oExactly 3 miles away from St. Peters oThis place was directed by the pope (Paul the III) oOverlooking the ancient forum oUsed to be a super muddy slope oNew façade for the palace and creating a matching façade on the other side The new third side is pretty much just a façade oAlso adds a long staircase and the pavement Urbanistic Principles oApproaching regular geometry, symmetry oPre-established ideal viewing point on entrance oAxis alignment with a dominant building oPreference for uniform treatment of other buildings on the piazza oThere is no definite perspective though Movement oCreates big oval inscription into the square to give a stretched sense of direction while pulling you along It also sinks down on the outer edge of the oval and then comes back up in the center of the oval (to support the horse statue) oOptical and physical linkages Uses the stairs to lift you up oFramed view back from Palace of the Senator down the street Theory oAmbiguous position of the minor order – rounded with entasis … giving extra support to the entablature oCapitals are stuck and jammed into very narrow places oJamming and cramming oCausing tension in your gut Mannerism oCreates colossal order … unites 2 stories Tall and a pilaster or column covers two stories Give sense of grandeur with little effort oFleshy “deformed” Ionic capital This is a way of giving anatomy Puts a grotesqth face on the center of each side of the capital II. Palazzo Farnese – Rome, Italy – 16 cent – Sangallo and Michelangelo – Renaissance Context oArchitectural Intimidation Very large scale at the time Built for Pope Paul III who was Cardinal at the time 2-17-16 No one will want to attack you if it’s this big cause they know you have power oClears a piazza in front of it oWidens a street oAxis going across the river to connect to their property there Façade oExpansive lateral move oGrabbing land rather than building tall oCorner quoins = stone rustication just on the corners and they support a large cornice oWindows all line up – basic vertical module th oOnly other rusticated area of the building Is the front door entrance 16 century aesthetics oVestibule Barrel vaulted Two small ones on the side Grand roman living Grand scale Antique spolia columns oCourtyard Engaged columns on piers Sculptural Corner problem single column looked narrow so here they use two columns to create a pier Plan oKind of like the roman domus oAxial oLarge door leading all the way to a courtyard garden oScale of rooms is much larger oRooms enfilade (in a parade) – all the doors are aligned up
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