Week one: Anatomy and Physiology Notes
Week one: Anatomy and Physiology Notes ANPS 019
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia may on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANPS 019 at University of Vermont taught by Sean Flynn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 112 views.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Lecture 1 objectives 1.Describe the different kinds of chemical bonds Covalent Bonding between 2 nonmetals; sharing of electrons creating bounding Polar sharing electrons unequally Nonpolar sharing electrons equally Ionic Bonding between a metal and nonmetal: complete transfer of electrons resulting in two charged atoms that are then attracted to each other Cation + charged ion Antion charged ion Hydrogen bonding because hydrogen is the smallest atom it usually has polar bonds which results in a partial positive charge which allows for weak attraction to a negative ion 2.Explain the structure of water and how it works as a solvent The structure of water is bent, which means it has a + pole and a pole due to an unequal sharing of electrons, water molecules are held together but easily broken electron bounds and are attracted to any solute with charged atoms 3. Explain the relationship between pH and concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution and relate this to the pH values of key body fluids The lower the pH the higher the H+ concentration, more acidic The higher the pH the lower the H+ concentration, more basic Blood is relatively neutral mean there are = amounts of H+ and OH ions, stomach acid is very acidic so there is a high [H+] 4. Describe the process which enzymes catalyze reactions Reactants (substrates) interact to yield a product by binding to the active site of the enzyme to form a temporary enzyme substrate complex. The ES substrate undergoes internal reorganization that forms a product and is released. Decreases activation energy, thus making a reaction more likely Not used up in reaction Very sensitive to temperature and pH change Stability of the body allows for optimal reactions Lecture 2 objectives 1. Explain why carbon is the core of Organic Molecules Carbon has 4 valence electrons thus allowing it to from 4 bounds. Carbon can form single bounds, double, and triple bounds. 2. Describe the basic structure of each of the four classes of Organic molecules, and where they are used in the body Lipids mostly carbon and hydrogen, lack charges making them hydrophobic not attracted to water. 5 classes: P hospholipids and Glycolipids Cell membranes Fatty acids energy storage and building blocks Triglycerides three fatty acids attached by dehydration synthesis to one molecule of glycerol Glycerides building blocks S teroids cholesterol and sex hormones, corticosteroids egul te metabolism, important in lipid digestion, E icosanoids signaling hormones Phospholipids polar on one end and non polar on the other Phosphorus (head), glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acid chains (tail) Carbohydrates Typically have an H and an OH, “sugar group” important for energy, charged > hydrophilic, monosaccharides 1 sugar molecules Disaccharides 2 or more sugar molecules, Glycogen the polysaccharides storage of glucose Proteins 20 Amino acids (R) (Carbon, amino group, carboxylic acid, and R group), used for support and movement. enzymes have many functions (transportation, catalysis, pH, metab, body defense, and protein management). Some charged, some hydrophilic some hydrophobic. acid and amino group interact and form peptide bond (release of H2O). primary: linear sequence of aminos secondary: helix sheet, beginning of interactions (alpha sheets: spiral, h bonds. beta sheets: zigzags, pleated, h bonds) Tertiary (globular): final shape, sensitive to pH and temp, globular form held together by intermolecular bonds quaternary: globular proteins meet, these proteins are only active when out together Nucleic Acids Made of Nucleotides containing Phosphate group (PO4), sugar group, nitrogen containing base Types of Nitrogen bases: Purines double ring molecules (adenine, guanine) Pyrimidines single ring (cytosine, thymine, Uracil) Makes DNA ( Phsophate, suagr, base) and RNA. Phosphate ends held together by hydrogen bounds 3. Describe the structure of ATP and relate it to its ability to power chemical reactions in the body Made by adding a phosphate group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP Adenine, ribose, 2 phosphates) in a process called Phosphorylation. ATP (Adenine, ribose, 3 phosphates) is a high energy compound, that energy can be released during ATP hydrolysis which is the removal of a terminal phosphate group.
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