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Western Civilization to 1689 Notes Week 4

by: Baylee Jacobs

Western Civilization to 1689 Notes Week 4 HIS 101

Marketplace > Tri-County Technical College > History > HIS 101 > Western Civilization to 1689 Notes Week 4
Baylee Jacobs
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Greek History, Minoans & Myceneans, Dark Age, Archaic Age
Western Civilization to 1689
Professor Vogt
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Baylee Jacobs on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Professor Vogt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization to 1689 in History at Tri-County Technical College.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
2/1/16 Minoans & Myceneans Parthenon- oldest recognizable piece of architecture in Greek culture, is situated on the acropolis Divisions within Greek History Two majors historic periods of Greek culture and influence  Hellenic Period: Bronze Age to Alexander the Great (1100- 323 B.C.) the Dark Age, the Archaic Age, the Classical Age  Hellenistic Period: Death of Alexander the Great to the emergence of Roman power-spread of Greek culture throughout Alexander’s conquered lands Major Contributions to Western Culture  Development of democracy o  Poems, plays, and literature  Mathematics o Geometry o Astronomy  Greek philosophy  Emphasis on the importance of the individual Bronze Age to Crete and on the Mainland to About 1150 BCE  The Minoans rd nd o Arose in 3 and 2 Millennia BCE on Crete o Built large elaborate palaces found at various sites  The Mycenaeans o 3000-1100 BC o Centered on Mycenae o A warrior people: fortified cites, weapons o Dissapeared around 1100 BC  Greek Dark Age (1200-800 BC) o Greek speaking peoples, Dorians, had infiltrated mainland Greece during middle and late Mycenean period o Writing disappeared after fall of Mycenae, reappearing 750 BC o Major source of info for this period is Homer’s epic poems  Illiad  Odyssey The Poet Homer  Bleieved to be probably more then one individual  Wthte “The illiad” and “The Odyssey,” both of which date to the 8 century BC Humeric Society  Kings rule in consulation with nobles  Hierarchical society: nobles and everyone else o Nobles o Thetes o Landless laborers o Slaves  Homeric Values: strength, courage, honor, reputation, arête o Arête- personal excellence  The role of women was chiefly to bear and raise children o Women do not have any political power o Follow traditional roles The Archaic Age  The Olympic Games and Delphic Oracle o Out of dark ages funeral games: the quadrennial Olympic festival games  Pan Hellenic festival first convened in Olympia (776 BC)  The Games brought Greeks together in shared pursuit of individual excellence- “arête” and “agon”.  Arete meant honor and bravery.  Agon implied that life was a constant struggle. o Greeks believed Apollo communicated divine truths through Oracle at Delphi o Oracle- a person who had direct access to the gods The Archaic Age Breakout  Archaic age Emmigration o Homes away from home o Multiple motives for foreign settlements  Population pressures; famines; trading posts Review Dark Ages 1. Few material trces of culture 2. Absence of writing 3. Collapse of economy Archaic Age 1. Reemergence of writing 2. Development of greek instsitution, oracle, Olympic Games The Archaic Age Breakout  Archaic Age Emmigration o Homes away from home o Multiple motives for foreign settlements  Population pressures; famines; trading posts  Dirty Politics and Hesiod’s Discontent  Hesiod, eighth century poet o Wrote the Theogony and Works for Days o Humans had once lived in a golden period, and that has all gone down Polis  Foundation of Greek life  Independent “city-state,” though not necessarily cities  Firmly established by 750 BC  Thought of as community of relatives; citizens theoretically descended from a common ancestor  Originally elevated area to which local farmers could retreat in case of attack (Acropolis in Athens)  Agora- marketplace and civic center  Replaced true monarchy with aristocratic republics  Greek writing system emerged around 750 BC The Archaic Breakout  During the Archaic Age, poleis fell under the tight control of aristocratic families and farmers suffered o The polis as a “city-state”  Coinage emerged  Poetry turned from the epic to the lyrical  Poets began to use the subjective “I” in their works o Emphasis on the individual  Sages, chiefly from Ionia began to spectulate on human existence and its place in the universe o Sage- wise man  Pythagoras developed the Pythagorean Theorem  Stone temples were introduced at the beginning of the 7 th century  Greeks were impressed with Egyptian sculpture and had begun to produce their own sculpture kouroi Hoplite Phalanx  Military techthque crucial to development of the polis  End of the 8  Hoplite: heavily armed infantryman; spear and large shield  Phalanx: body of hoplite formed in close ranks about eight deep ( like a pivoting porcupine Greek Expansion, 8 -6th th  Poleis established from Spain to Black sea  Macedonia, southern Italy, Sicily, Spain, southern France, NE Mediterranean coasts, Black Sea  Magna Greece The Greek Colony  Greeks were driven by overpopulation, hunger for land  Relationship btwn colony and sponsoring polis: The Archaic Age Breakout  The conflicting Pulls of Pan Hellenism and Polis-Centrism o Traveling bards and sages fostered cultural similarity o Each polis stubbornly independent o Early government- by aristocrats


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