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Western Civilization to 1689 Notes Week 5

by: Baylee Jacobs

Western Civilization to 1689 Notes Week 5 HIS 101

Marketplace > Tri-County Technical College > History > HIS 101 > Western Civilization to 1689 Notes Week 5
Baylee Jacobs
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Athens and Sparta, Greek Religion, Persian Wars, The War in Greece, Peloponnesian Wars
Western Civilization to 1689
Professor Vogt
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Baylee Jacobs on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Professor Vogt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization to 1689 in History at Tri-County Technical College.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
Baylee Jacobs 2/8/16 WEEK 5 Tyrants  Tensions btwn nobles commercially successful non-nobles lead in some poleis to rise of tyrants  Definition: A monarch who gained power in an unorthodox way and exercised strong one-man rule- often in a constructive and popular Athens  Location: Attica  Government: typical aristocratic polis o 4 tribes, several clans and brotherhoods (phratries) o Areopagus- council of nobles (held true power) o 9 archons- magistrates(judge) o Assembly  Agricultural crisis: small farmers falling into some sort of debt Athenian Rulers  Solon o Elected sole archon o Agricultural, economic reforms o Constitutional changes  Citizenship expanded  People divided into classes based on wealth  Pisistratus the Tyrant o First Athenian tyrant o Sought to empower central govt at expense of nobles o Unintentionally fostered Athenians’ taste for self- government o Son Hippias less popular, deposed by Spartans  Military of Sparta ruled  Clisthenes o Founder of Democracy o Furthered reforms of Solon & Pisistratus: increased citizen rolls, decreased power of aristocracy  Every male citizen over a certain age were allowed to vote o Council of 500 o Role of assembly elevated Sparta  Location: Peloponnesus  Conquered neighbors and made them serfs, or Helot o Helots or serfs: slaves  Spartan society remade into permanent military establishment  Individual controlled from birth o At 7, boys enrolled in full-time military/athletic instruction o At 20, enrolled in army o Full citizenship at 30 o Military service required until 60 o Girls: gymnastic training, taught like boys to serve the state  Governement: elements of monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy o Two kings o Council of elders o Aseembly o Ephors- 5 men elected annually by elders  Peloponnesian League o In place by 500, led by Sparta o Alliances extracted from all but one Peloponnesian state o Made Sparta the most powerful polis in Hellenic history Greek Religion  Polytheistic  Olympian gods: 12 on Mount Olympus o Pantheon gods- latin name  Seen as behaving much like humans o Anthropomorphize- talk about something that is a human  Each polis had one Olympian as guardian deity  Numerous lesser deities worshipped at local shrines Persians: Today it is Iran Ionia- western Turkey & islands off the shore  Dominated much of Europe  Capital of Persian Empire: Persepolis  Leader: Darias I  First Great Invasion 490 BC occurred after Ionian Rebellion Persian Wars  499 BC Ionian Revolt o Ionia: west coast of Asia Minor, controlled by Persia o Ionian Greeks supported by Athenians o The Ionians could not maintain a sustained rebellion and were defeated in 495 BC by the Persian o Persian WarS- start in 499 The War in Greece  Battle of Marathon, 490 BC o Persian expedition against Athens soundly defeated o One of most important  The Great Invasion, 480-479 BC o Persians under Xerxes vs. Sparta, Athens, & allies (Greek League) o Athenian navy was the largest and would make a difference in the ability of the Greek League to defeat the Persians  Athenians were great in sea and Persians were great on land o Battles of Thermopylae o Persians suffered a crushing defeat at Plataea, temporarily ending the war in 479 BC  Classical Age- cultural high point in Greece  Defeated Persians at Plataea 479 BC Herodotus  Wrote the “Histories”  Contemporary- of the same time  Called the Father of Hsitory and by some the Father of Lies  484-425 BC  Halicarnassus (SW Turkey)  Ethnic Greek at Asia Minor  Influenced by Greco-Persian Wars and travelled widely  Thermopylae o Spartans took their stand o Lost to Persians The Delian League  From 478 BC Greeks led by Athens Against Persia  Aim of the Delian League was to free all Greeks under Persian rule and sack Persian land for compensation  Forerunner of Athenian Empire o Dominant Poleis  Persians driven from Europe and Argean cleared of pirates o Athenians pushed back Persians from Europe to Asia Minor Athenian Empire  From alliamce to empire o Athens kept one-sixtieth of Delian League’s revenues  Lands ringing Aegean First Peloponnesian War (460-445 BC)  Athens vs Sparta  Early Athenian dominance  449 BC Athens ends war with Persia  445 BC Thirty years peace o Athens gives up mainland possessios outside Athens o Sparta recognizes Athenian Empire  Spartan hegemony on land, Athenian hegemony on Aegean  Thecydides, chronicled the wars in writing Pericles  Lead Athens between the time of the Peloponnesian Wars  Was described as the first citizen of Athens  Age of Pericles- building of the Parthenon, greatest time of culture and writing for Athens The Great Peloponnesian War (432-404 BC)  Peloponnesian League vs Athenian Empire  Athenian vs disaster ensues after ill-conceived invasion of Sicily  Thucydides: naval leader, historian wrote “The Histories”  Persia aids Sparta, Athenian subject states rebel  Athenian Empire dismantled 404 BC 404-338 BC: Struggle for Leadership Among Greek States  Spartan Hegemony o Hegemony- total control or domination o Athenian leadership briefly replaced by Spartan o Continuing intermittent conflict with Persia o Thebes and recovered Athens ally against Sparta in two wars o Greeks weakened by two centuries of internal warfare Classical Greek Culture  Athenian Golden Age- btwn Persian & Peloponnesian War  Arts & letter inspired by creative tension: o Greek pride vs fear of overreaching o Individual vs society  Attic tragedy- Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides  Buildings like the Acropolis honored the greatness of Greek civilization


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