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BIOL 1040, lecture notes from 2/23 and 2/25

by: Sarah Stewart

BIOL 1040, lecture notes from 2/23 and 2/25 BIOL 1040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 1040 > BIOL 1040 lecture notes from 2 23 and 2 25
Sarah Stewart
GPA 4.0

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Finishes discussing Chapter 40 (The Circulatory System) and all of Chapter 41 (Osmotic Regulation and Excretion)
General Biology II
Dr. William Surver
Class Notes
Biology, Surver, Clemson, 1040
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Stewart on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
Chapter 40: The Circulatory System Lecture given 2/23/16 Study diagrams of heart anatomy/blood flow; watch animation of electrical impulse Artery – carries blood away from the heart; arteriole smaller branch of artery Vein – carries blood to the heart; venule smaller branch of vein Capillaries – have thin walls and are narrow (about as wide as a red blood cell); increase surface area for gas/fluid exchange with interstitial fluid • RBC can squeeze through capillaries • Molecules diffuse through capillary walls • Veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood down the body; arteries don’t need these because of the pressure from the heart Capillary beds – an aggregation of capillaries, found throughout the body Chapter 41: Osmotic Regulation and Excretion *Must know structure of kidney and nephron Osmoregulation – homeostatic control of the uptake and loss of water and solutes such as salt and other ions; osmosis utilized • Hypertonic vs. Isotonic vs. Hypotonic Osmoconformers – animals (most marine animals) that have body fluids with a solute concentration equal to that of seawater; face no challenges with water balance Osmoregulators – have body fluids whose solute concentrations differ from that of their environment; must actively regulate water movement • Ex) Saltwater fish – live in hypertonic environment, so they lose water by osmosis; drink seawater and use gills to get rid of excess salt • Ex) Freshwater fish – live in hypotonic environment, so they gain water by osmosis through gills; lose salt by diffusion and remove excess water through their urine Lecture given 2/25/16 • Ex) Land animals – face risk of dehydration, lose water by evaporation and waste disposal; gain water by drinking, eating, and cellular respiration; conserve water by waterproof skin, efficient kidneys, and other reproductive and behavioral adaptions. The Urinary System • Forms/excretes urine and regulates the amount of water and solutes in body fluids • In humans, kidneys are the main processing centers of urinary system; highly associated with the circulatory system • Kidneys extract 180L of filtrate per day, consists of water, urea, and many valuable solutes like glucose, amino acids, etc. • Filtrate refined in kidneys: concentrating urea, recycling water and useful solutes to the blood • Typical day, humans excrete only 1.5L of filtrate • During filtration the pressure of blood forces water/other small molecules through capillary wall in the kidney tubule forming filtrate The Kidney Nephron – the functional unit of the kidney; collects material, filters material out, and creates urine • Blood enters nephron through renal artery and flows into a bed of capillaries called the… …Glomerulus – entrance to the nephron, many things enter but not everything is excreted • Filtrate forced into Bowman’s capsule flows through nephron tubule where it is refined • Two processes refine the filtrate: 1. Reabsorption of water and valuable solutes are reclaimed from filtrate 2. Secretion of excess H+ ions and toxins are added to filtrate Urine – final product of refinement, expelled through the urethra from bladder • Interstitial fluid changes in its tonicity in reference to the nephron • As you move from the cortex to the medulla of the kidney, concentration of ions increases and color darkens • The descending loop of Henle can diffuse water out of the filtrate, but the ascending loop in impermeable to water and can only diffuse NaCl out Wastes • Nitrogenous waste is a toxic byproduct of metabolism, the breakdown products of proteins and nucleic acids • Ammonia too toxic to be stored in body, highly soluble in water • Urea is produced in the vertebrate liver by combining ammonia and CO2, more soluble form of nitrogenous waste • Uric acid excreted by some land animals, not very toxic and excreted in a thick paste; takes a lot of energy to form • Hormones regulate the urinary system • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates amount of water excreted by kidneys by signaling nephrons to reabsorb blood


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