Continuation of The Rise of Communism, Fascism, and U.S. Isolation 1917-1939
Continuation of The Rise of Communism, Fascism, and U.S. Isolation 1917-1939 HIS113U
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS113U at Pace University taught by Barbara Blumberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see The American Experience: The United States and the World in History at Pace University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
I. Japan and Asia a. 1890's-Early 1900s i. Industrialized very rapidly in trying to keep up with the Western powers. ii. As they pushed to become more industrialized, they did not have much land since it is a string of islands. This makes it face some serious problems 1. Small country with little natural resources that a country has to have if it wants to industrialize a. No oil b. No iron ore or other basic minerals c. No coal 2. They had a rapidly growing population and not enough land, the land they do have for the most part is mountainous and little agriculture is possible. iii. One of Japan's motive's for entering WWI with the allies because they were promised lots of land, specifically all of Germany's Asian colonies. 1. They did not get what they were promised because of the 14 points plan during the Treaty of Versailles. a. This lead to a strong Anti-American feeling b. 1920's i. After the war the Japanese government had moderate government officials 1. They decided to make good trade relations with the Western countries so that they could get the resources they have to have. 2. The US had a ton of oil in the 1920's and were a huge exporter. c. 1921 i. President Harding's secretary of state called an international conference to meet in Washington D.C. ( Washington Conference) 1. Japan, France, Britain, Italy, and all the countries who had a stake or interest in the Far East were invited. 2. If you look at the map (bottom of page 48) a lot of the land in Asia had become colonies of European countries. France had what is now Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Britain was controlling Hong Kong, India and ports. America had control of the Philippines (they did not gain independence after WW2). 3. At this conference three treaties came into being. a. Treaty that pledged that each of the countries would respect each other's property in colonies in Asia and no one would try to grab another's property. b. If any differences arise among these conference countries, rather than going to war against each other they will call a conference and settle whatever differences peacefully. c. All countries that signed (including Japan) agreed to respect the independence of China and would not try and split it up into colonies and all would have an equal chance to trade, and invest in China. d. Because a new naval arms race had started back up there was a treaty that said "Let's agree to freeze the size of our navies at the size they are right now in 1921 and for 10 years we pledge not to build big war ships." 4. It seemed after this conference peace in Asia would be good. These treaties however did not have any enforcement though making the peace very weak. ii. Through the 1920's relations with Japan as long as the US was concerned were good. We were selling them tons of stuff. iii. The western nations including the US often treated Japan badly. The US had a lot of anti-Asian sentiment, in the midst of the 1920's the US congress and president signed into law the "National Origins Quota Act" which forbid any Asian immigrants to come into this country. 1. China of course resented this, but was weak militarily 2. India wasn't its own country 3. Japan saw itself as equal if not superior to Western countries and took great resentment from this act. iv. There were also changes going on in Japanese internal policies 1. By the late 1920's very nationalistic politians emerged a. Military leaders power had increased b. Japan had become increasingly sure they did not want to continue close cooperation with the US and that was not the way to make Japan powerful. c. Some of the military and political leaders started building up "The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere." i. Started to drive out Western cultural influences out of Japan. ii. Leaders say traditional culture is far more superior iii. Then they began to preach the economic problems and become as great as the US or Britain or the West, is that they have to come to control and dominate all of East Asia (economically, politically and militarily), and make it a special zone (Like the Monroe Doctrine, where the US says they have control of the entire rest of the Americas and not interfere) iv. Under the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere all countries that were Western Colonies had to become part of Japan and the westerners had to be pushed out, and all of China had to be dominated. v. Japanese superiority was preached. To make this idea more acceptable for other Asian countries they said they would treat them better than the West. (To this day there is still strong resentment of what the Japanese did in WW2 from those they conquered) d. Japanese government had a parliament, voting of the middle and upper classes, and they had an emperor. The Emperor was not an absolute monarch, he had ministers, could listen to the advice of the military. He was looked upon as almost godlike however, and if he threw his support behind any group of politicians then it went a long way with them getting power and doing what they wanted. i. A new emperor came to the throne in the 1920's. (18-19 years old when coronated) He was impressionable, ambitious for his country. He listened to these nationalistic leaders, it went a long way to them gaining power. Also in the late 1920's they almost conducted a reign of terror at home. Nationalists started to assassinate their political rivals who were moderate and wanted to continue cooperation with the US. d. 1930's i. This nationalistic group came to power in Japan with the emperor's support because the Japanese people wanted to support him because it would be unpatriotic not to. ii. At home in Japan they began to do what they preached and attacked Western culture and started almost a dictatorship, got rid of those they did not like ( Japanese Communist party) iii. Sept. 1931- in violation of all the treaties of the Washington Conference and all promises of the League of Nations that they made they blew up a small incident that had happened as an excuse for a massive invasion of Manchuria the northern most province of China. 1. They had built up a modern army, air force 2. China was quite weak a. They used the same techniques that Germans and Italians did in Spain and bombing villages and killing civilians. Soldiers shoot anyone, rape women, commit atrocities. b. Quickly they were winning and taking over Manchuria. How does the rest of the world react to this? i. League of Nations on the request of China said to Japan this was nonacceptable aggression and must withdraw troops. Japan responded by saying they were being insulted and since the League condemned us we are leaving the League of Nations. Afterwards the League of Nations did nothing otherwise. ii. The US (and President Hoover(R ) )was busy with the Great Depression and wasn't inclined in getting involved in foreign affairs. Hoover's secretary of State ( Henry Stimson (R )) was for an effective strong foreign policy. When Japan attacked Manchuria and especially with the brutal treatment of civilians, he wanted Hoover to have an incredibly strong stand and have the US take actions against Japan ( economic sanctions- especially since they needed the steel, arms and oil the US was selling to them) 3. Afterwards they put on the throne in Manchuria ( Manchukuo) the last emperor that China had ( it was a republic by 1931 so he was technically out of a job.) This emperor was pretty much just a puppet. a. Stimson was disgusted by this and asked Hoover if he could make a speech about how he feels about the atrocities that went on. i. "The United States will not recognize any change in ownerships in territory that had been brought about by force, aggression, and therefore the US will not recognize Manchukuo, will not exchange diplomats, as far as the US is concerned that is Manchuria the northern part of China." 1. This wasn't as strong of a move as he thought it would be. b. Japan continued their attacks and occupied Shanghai. 4. Having gotten away with this the Japanese leaders figured it was the time to get away with the Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere because the West was busy trying to fix their economies. Japan however was just getting a better and better economy. e. 1937 i. Japan begins and all-out attack and conquest of China. ii. Japan does amazingly well. f. 1939-1940 i. Map on page 48 shows Japanese conquests shown in blue and what isn't conquered is in pink. About 1/3 of China had been conquered by Japan. It was the most strategic part they controlled too. ii. The Chinese wasn't able to resist more effectively because even though they had a bigger population and weaker army they should have put up a greater defense. They were not more effective because a civil war was going in China. Cheng kai shek was the leader of the Nationalist Party (friendly to the big land lords of China), China developed a communist movement and party with Mao Zedong. The Communists started a revolt against the Nationalist Government. This civil war makes it easy for the Japanese to take control of such a big area of China. II. Germany, the Weimar Republic, Hitler and Mein Kampf a. By the fall of 1918 i. the Kaiser's government in Germany realized while they weren't totally beaten, they could not win world war one. 1. Austria had fallen apart 2. The Allied Armies were poised on Germany's western border to invade ii. The Kaiser sent a note to Woodrow Wilson to please agree to have an armistice and then have a conference to work out the treaty based on the 14 points 1. Wilson says he'd be more inclined to do so if there was a really democratic republic supporting Germany and her people. b. Weimar Republic i. Government started off rocky and the republic had to sign the treaty of Versailles and take the blame for the Kaiser's mistakes. ii. The Germans saw the Weimar Republic as a weak selling out government whom they hated and many were determined to overthrow it from the get go. iii. 1923 times were hard economic wise with reparations. 1. Tried to lessen the number of how much they had to pay by purposely devaluing the German Marcs. 2. Super- inflation occurred. 3. The republic literally decided to stop paying. The French government was angry and they sent and occupying army into the Rhineland. The French had quite a big army including the French colonies. This means that some troops were black. c. Adolph Hitler i. Was born in Austria, so not even German actually. ii. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (video) 1. Germany impoverished by war a. Army becomes a token force (hardly anything) 2. Germany is full of political murder and is basically full of fighting and back street issues. 3. German Worker's Party a. Full of racism and social change b. Hitler joins and rises through the ranks soon and makes friends with people. i. Nazi leaders starting to take ship. The Army secretly sends money and people to train. c. As the nation nears civil war Hitler offers Nordic supremacy and hatred of Jews. d. He attempts to invade Bavaria in 1923. This fails and he is arrested. Hitler is sent to jail for 5 years but instead only serves 9 months. He writes Mein Kampf. iii. Mein Kampf (honestly has zero logic) 1. Bible of Nazism a. Most people did not take it seriously except those who followed him. 2. Who Hitler hated a. Communists i. Denies personality ii. Ignores race and nationality iii. Nazism believes that that race and nationality are above all most important. iv. Also it took away the aristocracy b. Black People c. Anyone who wasn't white really d. Slavic Peoples ( Poland, Russian) e. The French f. Jewish People i. Why? ( In Hitler's words) 1. They have too much influence in the economy and live in Germany and go to German schools. They have become successful. 1. Not even 2% of German population was Jewish. 2. They bring black people into Germany. 1. The French black troops from their colonies. 3. Capitalists/bourgeois 4. Communists 5. Also democrats 3. His views on Propaganda a. He chooses one group so that the people’s attention wasn’t divided. b. He chooses the Jewish people because they are a small amount in Germany. c. He tells people not to go for the intelligence of people (he already thinks most are morons) appeal to their emotions. d. The bigger the lie the easier it is to trick them.
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