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ANTH 320 Notes 2/23/16-2/25/16

by: Hadley Ashford

ANTH 320 Notes 2/23/16-2/25/16 ANTH 320

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill > ANTH > ANTH 320 > ANTH 320 Notes 2 23 16 2 25 16
Hadley Ashford
GPA 3.776

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About this Document

These notes cover ideas from Frank and Scott.
Anthropology of Development
R. Colloredo-Mansfeld
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
ANTH 320 Notes 2/23/16-2/25/16 2/23/16 - Development vs. underdevelopment: o Andre Gunder Frank 1969  Against previous ideas of development, recognizes failure to correctly account for historical context  Response to Rostow (and others) ideas of development  Dependency theory: anti-economic growth-oriented, development projects perpetuate conditions of poverty - Recap of Rostow’s stages of economic growth (discourse still exists as seen in Sachs) o National development independence: each country goes through stages at different rates  Underdeveloped= early stage o Agricultureindustry o Mass consumption o Struggle between tradition and modernity o Self-perpetuating system - Does being part of world economy make poor countries poorer? o Rostow-like thinkers say no  Correct infrastructure and increased exports create prosperity o Frank-like thinkers say yes  Markets only work for those with capital  Only separation allows development  Keep poor impoverished o How to test these ideas:  Historical perspective: does infrastructure correlate with stages  Institutional perspective: does poverty imply lack of modernity?  Geographical perspective: does physical isolation mean economic isolation?  Markets: do they only benefit the wealthy? - Debate about stages theory: o Stages theorists say: places like Kenya lack basic infrastructure just like US in 1890’s. US able to overcome and impoverished countries can too o Dependency theorists say: US never had same conditions of Kenya (or other impoverished countries)  Impoverished countries generally have extremes of poverty and modern elite (wealthy, healthy, advanced technology)  Impoverished countries have been through many stages and are still not at level of US - Duality: countries have modern section and traditional section o Modern= industrial, urban, growth/progress o Traditional= subsistence farming, little education o Frank argues that they aren’t completely separate  Traditional sector provides labor and resources to modern sector  Value put into modern sector doesn’t come back to traditional  Traditional doesn’t necessarily lack urban experience - Debate of geography’s effect on development: o Barriers= mountains, deserts, land-locked areas o Refutations  History shows previous prosperity in areas with geographic barriers (Inca and Moche)  Countries never naturally landlocked  Result of war/politically-created boundaries  Even isolated areas experience small urban areas with growth and prosperity - Debate of effect of markets: o Important conditions for healthy markets (anthropologically):  Regularity: predictable, so allows future planning  Adequacy: enough diversity to make it worth it to participate  Security: money is safe and transactions dependable  Autonomy: freedom of choice of individual  No one forced to do anything o Coffee video: What is important question to ask coffee buyer to make sure market is fair?  Small-scale family farms produce 70% coffee  Coffee industry makes billions annually, but growers still live in poverty  Video team asks opinions of poor (idea from Farmer)  NAFTA would only benefit large corporations  Zapatistas protested unfair conditions  Group of small-scale producers formed Maya Vinic to protect against unfair practices of middlemen  Important focus on results/effects on producers as people as means of measuring fairness - Self-generating: local demand encourages growth/progress of investment, materials, skills o Producers can meet local demand AND sell to international markets - World-economy development: o Port-oriented infrastructure, export markets, single industries o Politicians support interests of single industries (one main commodity produced for a specific country) o Commodity prices support local economy o Increased trade simplifies: diversity loss and less skill development 2/25/16 - Scott shows merits of traditional agriculture in place of focus on scientific advancements o How people are actually productive vs. scientific model of production - Polyculture systems usually targets of agricultural development projects - Benefits of polycropping: o Plants help other plants grow better  Ex. plant corn and beans together- corn stalks allow bean vines to crawl up, beans give nitrogen fixation to corn crops o Diversity decreases vulnerability to pests/disease o Diversity creates richer soil  Put back different nutrients into soil o Variation of landraces work in many different conditions  Different varieties of same plant good for different areas of field - Enemies of agricultural diversity: o Poll Everywhere responses:  Patents: companies put patents on seeds, force others to buy them, industry controlled by elite group  Profit: simplification necessary to overcome competition, simplification increases efficiencyproduction, simplifies and makes labor cheaper  Specific consumer demand: most consumers have specific type of crop they will buy, markets go along with consumer demand o Lecture slide examples:  Commodification: need most standard crop/product that meet specifications of buyers/markets  Mechanization: need landscape to support large machinery, plants need to withstand machines, machines interfere with farmer’s connection to farm/industry  Isolated experimental variables: simplification necessary for experimentation and research - Scott focuses on messiness vs. order o Messiness does not always mean disorder, can communicate certain types of expertise - What characteristics of visual messiness makes task productive? o Group discussions:  Garage:  Productivity/efficiency: using all materials, no time to put away everything  Many options: have many different tools available, organization usually means de-cluttering  Re-organization can cause loss of time finding materials  Spare material from other projects, scraps  Writer’s desk:  Externalization of mind: different messiness/particular organization depending on person and how they’re thinking  Kitchen:  Creativity/spontaneity: see all options, can substitute or try new method o Common characteristics (from slides)  Mutually productive relationship: order of one project helps success of others  Tools/materials illustrate clear sequence of action  Saving and reusing materials from different tasks  Excludes those who don’t want messiness - Scott says messiness vs. order is not either/or o Science can be good sometimes and in certain situations  Ex. use technology in classroom-only useful if everyone takes advantage of it  Only damages when forced


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