ANTH 320 Notes 2/23/16-2/25/16
ANTH 320 Notes 2/23/16-2/25/16 ANTH 320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
ANTH 320 Notes 2/23/16-2/25/16 2/23/16 - Development vs. underdevelopment: o Andre Gunder Frank 1969 Against previous ideas of development, recognizes failure to correctly account for historical context Response to Rostow (and others) ideas of development Dependency theory: anti-economic growth-oriented, development projects perpetuate conditions of poverty - Recap of Rostow’s stages of economic growth (discourse still exists as seen in Sachs) o National development independence: each country goes through stages at different rates Underdeveloped= early stage o Agricultureindustry o Mass consumption o Struggle between tradition and modernity o Self-perpetuating system - Does being part of world economy make poor countries poorer? o Rostow-like thinkers say no Correct infrastructure and increased exports create prosperity o Frank-like thinkers say yes Markets only work for those with capital Only separation allows development Keep poor impoverished o How to test these ideas: Historical perspective: does infrastructure correlate with stages Institutional perspective: does poverty imply lack of modernity? Geographical perspective: does physical isolation mean economic isolation? Markets: do they only benefit the wealthy? - Debate about stages theory: o Stages theorists say: places like Kenya lack basic infrastructure just like US in 1890’s. US able to overcome and impoverished countries can too o Dependency theorists say: US never had same conditions of Kenya (or other impoverished countries) Impoverished countries generally have extremes of poverty and modern elite (wealthy, healthy, advanced technology) Impoverished countries have been through many stages and are still not at level of US - Duality: countries have modern section and traditional section o Modern= industrial, urban, growth/progress o Traditional= subsistence farming, little education o Frank argues that they aren’t completely separate Traditional sector provides labor and resources to modern sector Value put into modern sector doesn’t come back to traditional Traditional doesn’t necessarily lack urban experience - Debate of geography’s effect on development: o Barriers= mountains, deserts, land-locked areas o Refutations History shows previous prosperity in areas with geographic barriers (Inca and Moche) Countries never naturally landlocked Result of war/politically-created boundaries Even isolated areas experience small urban areas with growth and prosperity - Debate of effect of markets: o Important conditions for healthy markets (anthropologically): Regularity: predictable, so allows future planning Adequacy: enough diversity to make it worth it to participate Security: money is safe and transactions dependable Autonomy: freedom of choice of individual No one forced to do anything o Coffee video: What is important question to ask coffee buyer to make sure market is fair? Small-scale family farms produce 70% coffee Coffee industry makes billions annually, but growers still live in poverty Video team asks opinions of poor (idea from Farmer) NAFTA would only benefit large corporations Zapatistas protested unfair conditions Group of small-scale producers formed Maya Vinic to protect against unfair practices of middlemen Important focus on results/effects on producers as people as means of measuring fairness - Self-generating: local demand encourages growth/progress of investment, materials, skills o Producers can meet local demand AND sell to international markets - World-economy development: o Port-oriented infrastructure, export markets, single industries o Politicians support interests of single industries (one main commodity produced for a specific country) o Commodity prices support local economy o Increased trade simplifies: diversity loss and less skill development 2/25/16 - Scott shows merits of traditional agriculture in place of focus on scientific advancements o How people are actually productive vs. scientific model of production - Polyculture systems usually targets of agricultural development projects - Benefits of polycropping: o Plants help other plants grow better Ex. plant corn and beans together- corn stalks allow bean vines to crawl up, beans give nitrogen fixation to corn crops o Diversity decreases vulnerability to pests/disease o Diversity creates richer soil Put back different nutrients into soil o Variation of landraces work in many different conditions Different varieties of same plant good for different areas of field - Enemies of agricultural diversity: o Poll Everywhere responses: Patents: companies put patents on seeds, force others to buy them, industry controlled by elite group Profit: simplification necessary to overcome competition, simplification increases efficiencyproduction, simplifies and makes labor cheaper Specific consumer demand: most consumers have specific type of crop they will buy, markets go along with consumer demand o Lecture slide examples: Commodification: need most standard crop/product that meet specifications of buyers/markets Mechanization: need landscape to support large machinery, plants need to withstand machines, machines interfere with farmer’s connection to farm/industry Isolated experimental variables: simplification necessary for experimentation and research - Scott focuses on messiness vs. order o Messiness does not always mean disorder, can communicate certain types of expertise - What characteristics of visual messiness makes task productive? o Group discussions: Garage: Productivity/efficiency: using all materials, no time to put away everything Many options: have many different tools available, organization usually means de-cluttering Re-organization can cause loss of time finding materials Spare material from other projects, scraps Writer’s desk: Externalization of mind: different messiness/particular organization depending on person and how they’re thinking Kitchen: Creativity/spontaneity: see all options, can substitute or try new method o Common characteristics (from slides) Mutually productive relationship: order of one project helps success of others Tools/materials illustrate clear sequence of action Saving and reusing materials from different tasks Excludes those who don’t want messiness - Scott says messiness vs. order is not either/or o Science can be good sometimes and in certain situations Ex. use technology in classroom-only useful if everyone takes advantage of it Only damages when forced