HIST 1312- Week of February 25, 2016
HIST 1312- Week of February 25, 2016 HIST 1312
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nina Nguyen on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Burton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see US History 1865 to Present in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
MASCULINITY, FOOTBALL, AND NEW AMERICAN NATIONALISM February 25, 2016 Recommended maximum for the essay questions is 400 words Sample IDs are provided n Blackboard “Give the historical context (who, what, where, and when) and the significance of...” 1. Politics in the Gilded Age a. “The Bearded Presidents” i. The presidents weren’t forceful or formidable from Lincoln to Roosevelt 1. Exceptions: James Garfield but 4months in his term, he was shot by a man who didn’t get a federal appointment 2. Exception: Roosevelt’s Rise a. He advocated for McKinley, hard! Roosevelt was VP b. McKinley’s assassinated (Sept. 1901) at a banquet c. The Battle of San Juan Hill catapulted him into prominence. He was a rough rider. d. Appealed to a lot of people; very energetic i. But as a child, he was very sickly ii. Undersized iii. As a result, he advocated for the strenuous life. Work hard. He brings it into politics. e. No one in the Political Party expected this to happen. They were not happy f. Youngest President g. Saw the office as the means in which he could push for progressive reforms i. First true activist President to use the office h. He took on the constitution and Congress i. He believed that the President could take any actions that were not prohibited in the Constitution exclusively i. Not long after he took office, the US was rising on the world scene 2. The Panama Canal a. The Panama Canal i. US was approached by the French. French company had been working on a canal across Panama to divide the North and South American continents and to provide easier access (18811897) . Costed nearly 300 mill dollars, 20 thousand died. Only dug 1/3 of the Canal. Approached the US to take over the project. b. HayHerran Treaty (1903) i. The Secretary of the State went to Columbia (where the canal was being built) to work out a deal. ii. In the treaty, Hay and Herran agreed that the US would get 6miled zone, they would pay 10 mill upfront in cash, and every year, US would pay rental fee (250 thousand dollars). iii. But treaties are not finalized until they go through Congress. Columbian govt. said it was not enough, 25 million upfront. 1. Roosevelt was enraged! Infuriated! 2. He said he would talk to the people in Panama. Panama have been trying to fight Columbia for independence. US sent the navy to help them so that they can “talk” about the canal. 3. Panamanians won and said they would agree to the original treaty’s conditions (except 6mile was changed to 10miles) c. Treaty with Panama was passed (November 13, 1903) d. Canal opened (August 15, 1914) i. Strategic move because World War 1 had begun 2 weeks beforehand. Therefore, there was high demand for access to the canal. ii. US has a major gateway to both oceans. 3. Roosevelt’s Progressivism a. Had the power of the office to suit his reforms. b. 1902 called for stricter enforcements of the Antitrust laws/ on the monopolies. i. Induces competitions between companies ii. Hated the Robber Barons because the RB saw them that they were above govt. control c. Busting up the trusts i. Roosevelt went back to “Sherman AntiTrust Act” 1. It was rendered useless because of the EC Knights Case ii. Intent: to break up monopolies iii. By the time Roosevelt got to office, Courts is more sympathetic to his ideas. d. He went after the biggest guy in town: JP Morgan i. The company was responsible for any transportation in the North e. Morgan’s Northern Securities Company dissolved (1904) i. The courts agreed with Roosevelt. f. Initiated 5 Antitrust suits. g. In 1903, Roosevelt established the Bureau of Corporations to monitor the activity interstate trade and companies i. Controlled by Congress ii. Asked Rockefeller for their papers and information, and they refused. h. Standard Oil Trust busted (1911) i. Roosevelt wants to remind that these Robber Barons are not above the law. ii. Public (especially small business owners) agrees with Roosevelt. i. After winning his election (1914?) j. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (1906) i. Chicago Stockyards supplied for the bulk of the meat in US ii. Intent: to highlight the hardship faced by the immigrants because they were the ones who were worked these meat packing factories 2 iii. Roosevelt read The Jungle and he, like many people, were horrified. He sent some people to Chicago to report on the conditions of the stockyards. Sinclair’s descriptions were sadly accurate. k. Meat Inspection Act (1906) l. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) i. Both established govt. restrictions on the making, producing, and selling of the any meat and drugs. Anything misbranded could not be sold. 4. Football and American Masculinity a. American football originated in 1869 b. Roosevelt embodied American masculinity. He believed that the US and the US men displayed their superiority by physical control. One growing area is sports. Baseball was the favorite at the time, but Roosevelt liked rugged sports. He believed that younger American men needed to get involved in rugged sports, so that they would be prepared for war. c. After the SpanishAmerican War, he promoted organized sports. d. Later half of the 19 century, football was on the rise. Roosevelt loved football! In the absence of imperialistic war, he supported football. i. Football parallels war. There’s rapid advancements in technology in padding, techniques, rules and regulations, and athletes. 1. In a way, football is Manifest Destiny. Goal is to take over territory. Each team has a side. e. Players at Princeton started collegiate football. Only a collegiate sport, not professional. At the time, it was a twist of soccer and rugby. Then, the games were less organized, more like brawls. Often, the result was deadly. Lots of people died in the 19 century. f. “The football crisis of 1905” i. 18 people died that year while playing + injuries ii. Schools were having to deal with the violence, so many banned football. iii. Cries to banning across the nation. g. To save football, Roosevelt called a meeting of representatives from the major ivy league schools (Harvard, Yale, Princeton). Oct 1905, met at the White House and discussed how they can protect the players. i. Sparked the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) 1. Walter Camp (at Yale) made new rules not based on military model based on a factory model. a. Spoke to the industrial life. b. Shaped the way football will be played. Taught order and obedience. h. Carlisle Indian School were responsible for a lot of trick plays like the fake pass. They were the best team at the time (even better than Harvard). i. By promoting sports and physical training, Roosevelt sought to lead America to be the manliest and civilized nation in the world. 5. New American Nationalism a. Nationbuilding program 3 b. Civil War stamped America as an indivisible nation. You cannot leave without harsh repercussions. th c. 4 of July Parades, schools (aka indoctrination centers) were instrumental to building national pride. d. Pledge of Allegiance (1892) i. National historical narrative was beginning to be taught at schools. e. In the final decade of the 19 century, lots of change has been made. Americans were still struggling to make meaning out of them. Loyalty began to shift from state level to the federal level. i. Not a Texan, but an American f. During Roosevelt’s presidency, wide reforms and programs were intentional efforts to form the American identity. g. Confederation interment at Arlington Memorial Cemetery (1901) i. The SpanAmer war reunited the North and South in a unified effort ii. Arlington, Virginia was built as a cemetery, but only Union soldiers could be buried there. Now, that ban has been passed. h. 1906 Antiquities Act i. Gave the President to restrict the use of particular lands held by the federal govt any land that had historical significance ii. Protect its natural state and beauty for future generations. They became national monuments. 1. Became national monuments. Part of the national identities. Because it’s ours! These monuments idealized the exceptionalism of the US. 2. 234 million acres were set aside for preservation. a. EX: Yosemite National Park i. Conservation under Roosevelt fed into the nationbuilding programs> patriotism. j. US was concerned for the state of the wildness. The US had closed the frontier, now we need to reserve its physical beauty> national pride. k. Roosevelt ended his presidency with… l. The Great White Fleet (1907) i. The entire US navy sailed down the coastline, stopped at every major port, projected and reminded people of the US’s position on the global stage. Celebrate the rise of the US as a world power. ii. US navy was the 2 to Britain’s navy. iii. This was a tour to show off the US triumphal. iv. Took two years for this procession> ended Roosevelt’s Presidency v. Some thought that the underlying message was white superiority with its name. 1. Always favored warfare. Roosevelt said that we said the natural instinct for race selfishness. 2. Fed into eugenics and racist ideologies 3. The fleet exemplified the US’s racial hierarchy in the 20 century. 4
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