Anth 120 Additional Reading/Material
Anth 120 Additional Reading/Material Anth 120
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 120 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Kathleen Blue in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
2/24/16 Trauma Trauma – pathological category defined as injury caused to living tissue by an outside force Cause of death – bullet wound, strangulation, stabbing, blunt force trauma, etc. Manner of death – homicide, suicide, accident, natural, unknown Forces Acting on Bone Compression Tension Torsion Bending Shearing Timing Antemortem – before death; evidence of healing o Porosity o Rounding o Callus Perimortem – occurring around the time of death; no healing observable o Green bone response – bend and snap Sharp, irregular edges Hinging Fracture lines Ends are angled with a jagged surface Postmortem – breakage, etc. that occurs after death o No radiating fracture lines o No hinging or greenstick fractures o Right angle breaks with flat edges o Differences in coloration Types of Trauma Blunt o Caused by a force with a wide impact area Clubs, baseball bats, shovels, etc. Falling Vehicular injuries – auto, plane, train Sharp o Knives, axes, any sharp or pointed instrument o Types of sharp force wounds Puncture – vertical direction; focus cone-shaped (i.e. ice pick) Incision – longer than wide; applied across bone by instrument with edge; slashing or stabbing (i.e. knife) Cleft – vertical direction; dynamic force; long sharp edge (i.e. axe, cleaver, machete) May also produce – fracture lines, hinge fractures, wastage Projectile o Bullets o Pellets o Arrows o Spears o Shrapnel o Other flying objects o Generally caused by handguns, rifles or shotguns Handguns and rifles – bullets Shotguns – pellets o Effects on bone determined primarily by: Size – diameter of projectile and/or barrel Caliber – bullet or barrel size of handgun or rifle; hundredths of inch; millimeters Gauge – shotguns; maximum weight of lead ball that would fit down barrel th o Example – 12-gauge shotgun: 1/12 of a pound lead ball o Pellet size and number – birdshot and buckshot; lower numbers indicate greater size of pellets; shotguns expel one ounce of material per shot Construction Profile o Sharp – rifles o Blunt – handguns o Hollowpoint – handguns o Blunt and hollowpoint are more likely to deform and leave larger exit wounds Internal composition o Solid o Fragmenting Jacketing o Full-metal o Semijacket o Nonjacketed (soft tipped) o Nonjacketed most likely to deform Velocity – greatest effect on wounding power Power of a projectile has linear relationship with its weight, but is the square of its velocity High velocity – rifles, magnum handguns Low velocity – most handguns Wounds of a catastrophic nature are due to high velocity impact Miscellaneous o Strangulation Hanging, ligature, manual Hyoid most likely to be broken in manual o Explosion o Sawing o Chemicals o Heat Fracture Types Simple Comminuted Infraction – incomplete fracture, hinge fracture, green stick fracture Fracture lines – radiating, hoop (heaving concentric) Pathological, stress and fatigue fractures Description of Wound(s) Placement within skeleton Bone Side (L/R) Location/surface (proximal, distal, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral) Types of wound o Complete/incomplete, simple/comminuted, presence of fracture lines Other Considerations Trajectory o Tumbling o Deformation Wound beveling o Inward (internal) o Outward (external) Wound shape o Round o Oval o Keyhole Glancing Round in direction of fire; fan-shape external bevel furthest o Irregular Wound size Fracturing o Precedes exiting of projectile Estimating Time since Death Decomposition o Autolysis o Putrefaction o Insect activity o Scavenging o Plant involvement o Physical factors Factors affecting rate of decomposition o Temperature o Humidity o Accessibility Surface finds > submerged remains > buried remains o One week > two weeks > eight weeks Time Since Death (TSD) Time Since Death (TSD) o Length of time since death of the individual and recovery of the body Antemortem o Before death o Signs of healing o Birth – one to two weeks prior to death Perimortem o No signs of healing o At or around the time of death (possible contributor) o One to two weeks prior to death or about three weeks after o “Green” bone – retention of fluids and elasticity Postmortem o Damage inflicted after death o About three weeks after death until recovery
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