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Anth 120 Additional Reading/Material

by: Hallie Notetaker

Anth 120 Additional Reading/Material Anth 120

Hallie Notetaker
Minnesota State University, Mankato
GPA 3.66
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About this Document

Trauma Types
Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach
Dr. Kathleen Blue
Class Notes
Anthropology, Forensic Science




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 120 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Kathleen Blue in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Forensic Science: An Anthropological Approach in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
2/24/16 Trauma Trauma – pathological category defined as injury caused to living tissue by an outside force Cause of death – bullet wound, strangulation, stabbing, blunt force trauma, etc. Manner of death – homicide, suicide, accident, natural, unknown Forces Acting on Bone  Compression  Tension  Torsion  Bending  Shearing Timing  Antemortem – before death; evidence of healing o Porosity o Rounding o Callus  Perimortem – occurring around the time of death; no healing observable o Green bone response – bend and snap  Sharp, irregular edges  Hinging  Fracture lines  Ends are angled with a jagged surface  Postmortem – breakage, etc. that occurs after death o No radiating fracture lines o No hinging or greenstick fractures o Right angle breaks with flat edges o Differences in coloration Types of Trauma  Blunt o Caused by a force with a wide impact area  Clubs, baseball bats, shovels, etc.  Falling  Vehicular injuries – auto, plane, train  Sharp o Knives, axes, any sharp or pointed instrument o Types of sharp force wounds  Puncture – vertical direction; focus cone-shaped (i.e. ice pick)  Incision – longer than wide; applied across bone by instrument with edge; slashing or stabbing (i.e. knife)  Cleft – vertical direction; dynamic force; long sharp edge (i.e. axe, cleaver, machete)  May also produce – fracture lines, hinge fractures, wastage  Projectile o Bullets o Pellets o Arrows o Spears o Shrapnel o Other flying objects o Generally caused by handguns, rifles or shotguns  Handguns and rifles – bullets  Shotguns – pellets o Effects on bone determined primarily by:  Size – diameter of projectile and/or barrel  Caliber – bullet or barrel size of handgun or rifle; hundredths of inch; millimeters  Gauge – shotguns; maximum weight of lead ball that would fit down barrel th o Example – 12-gauge shotgun: 1/12 of a pound lead ball o Pellet size and number – birdshot and buckshot; lower numbers indicate greater size of pellets; shotguns expel one ounce of material per shot  Construction  Profile o Sharp – rifles o Blunt – handguns o Hollowpoint – handguns o Blunt and hollowpoint are more likely to deform and leave larger exit wounds  Internal composition o Solid o Fragmenting  Jacketing o Full-metal o Semijacket o Nonjacketed (soft tipped) o Nonjacketed most likely to deform  Velocity – greatest effect on wounding power  Power of a projectile has linear relationship with its weight, but is the square of its velocity  High velocity – rifles, magnum handguns  Low velocity – most handguns  Wounds of a catastrophic nature are due to high velocity impact  Miscellaneous o Strangulation  Hanging, ligature, manual  Hyoid most likely to be broken in manual o Explosion o Sawing o Chemicals o Heat Fracture Types  Simple  Comminuted  Infraction – incomplete fracture, hinge fracture, green stick fracture  Fracture lines – radiating, hoop (heaving concentric)  Pathological, stress and fatigue fractures Description of Wound(s)  Placement within skeleton  Bone  Side (L/R)  Location/surface (proximal, distal, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral)  Types of wound o Complete/incomplete, simple/comminuted, presence of fracture lines Other Considerations  Trajectory o Tumbling o Deformation  Wound beveling o Inward (internal) o Outward (external)  Wound shape o Round o Oval o Keyhole  Glancing  Round in direction of fire; fan-shape external bevel furthest o Irregular  Wound size  Fracturing o Precedes exiting of projectile Estimating Time since Death  Decomposition o Autolysis o Putrefaction o Insect activity o Scavenging o Plant involvement o Physical factors  Factors affecting rate of decomposition o Temperature o Humidity o Accessibility  Surface finds > submerged remains > buried remains o One week > two weeks > eight weeks Time Since Death (TSD)  Time Since Death (TSD) o Length of time since death of the individual and recovery of the body  Antemortem o Before death o Signs of healing o Birth – one to two weeks prior to death  Perimortem o No signs of healing o At or around the time of death (possible contributor) o One to two weeks prior to death or about three weeks after o “Green” bone – retention of fluids and elasticity  Postmortem o Damage inflicted after death o About three weeks after death until recovery


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