Anth 311 Lecture 7
Anth 311 Lecture 7 Anth 311
Minnesota State University, Mankato
Popular in Ancient Egypt
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 311 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Ron Schirmer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Ancient Egypt in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
2/24/16 Lecture 7: The First Intermediate Period Art Formalization of art style was a hallmark of state formation in the early dynastic What does a “state style” accomplish? o Not only common visual vocabulary (universal access to image meaning) o But also hegemonic control of the imagery o Thus, state style is a powerful tool in expressing and maintaining power Art provides us with one of the most powerful ways to look at the intermediate period, too o Important in recognizing social developments o Distinct patterns in the different major regions o Yet not through massive building projects, which resume in the Middle Kingdom The War Between the States Remember “nome” structure o Dissolution of centralized authority opened the door for local groups Again not clear why dissolution – possibly because of Pepi II’s reign o They had already gained some measure of authority, lack of centralization allows expansion Two major centers emerged o Upper Egypt from Thebes 11 and 12 dynasties emerge at same time as 9 th o Lower Egypt from Herakleopoths Magth Initially rule was 7 and 8 dynasties from Memphis 9 and 10 dynasties from Herakleopolis Whole period lasted c. 200 years o Some “King” names known, most not o Most information from tomb scripts But again, remember, they were political too Abundant evidence that greatest changes were inversely effective o Elites lost ground No king ruled long enough to build temples No funds to build due to funds being spent on war o Commoners gained ground More local worship and local rule Some periods of stress o Environmental Flood failures, but very few – overall, good floods o Social Warfare – conscription and economic disruption but sporadic Responses o Stylistic and ideation all regionalization Greater complexity everywhere o Literary response “Coffin Texts” written at time, emphasizing accomplishments of individuals in protecting, providing, etc. “Wisdom Texts” written later, emphasizing quelling chaos as foundation for Middle Kingdom Upper Egypt Sites and artifacts show clear break with Old Kingdom o Ironic because Upper Egypt is where Egypt was first unified o New pottery forms, new decorative traditions Apparent emphasis on efficiency o Often characterized as “devolution” but lively and free of constraint First production of purely funerary goods for most burials o Previous practice was to include everyday items Nomarchic family at Thebes consolidated power and began to challenge Royal- descendent family at Herakleopolis o Most attacks in Middle Egypt at Abydos and Asyut Lower Egypt Derived from old Royal line o Unclear how direct, but much information in art Maintenance of pottery forms, decorations, etc. Even so, parallel trends in production reflect growing importance of production for common usages Capitol moved from Memphis to Herakleopolis (Lower Egypt won) o Burials at Saqqara demonstrate conceived link o Still not centralized power – no major monuments o But continued alliance of nomarchs to Herakleopolitan King Emphasis on tradition likely formed “Achilles Heel” The Clash and Reunification Long history of Theban insurrection Long quashed by alliance between Herakleopolitan and Asyutian nomarchs Became systemic under Intef I o Advanced by Mentuhotep I o Completed by Intef II Broke the alliance, domino effect from there Limited nomarchs – all allegiance was directly to him Resumption of widespread presence of ruler at distant temple complexes Drew on maintained expertise in old Memphite style
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