Social Psychology Week 7 Notes
Social Psychology Week 7 Notes Psyc 3221
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Warren on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3221 at East Carolina University taught by Kendell Thornton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Social Psychology Week 7 2/22/16 CLASS NOTES: Social Influence 1. Conformity: doing something in character without being asked to, even if there is pressure sometimes You have been pervasive in your life and wanted till the day you were able to make decisions as a child Example: Standing in an elevator facing the doors Example: Trying to fit in and be part of the group This keeps the environment predictable, makes us think we have mastered the environment and “have the world figured out” The conformity studies: Read Ash experiment from the textbook. Confederates (paid to lie) would trick the test subject to conform to the rest of the group. With 3 confederates the person would conform most of the time. So the study found that with the group size around 3-5 is the best for someone who is not in on the scheme to conform to the others. The conformity rate drops off from 1-2 and above 5. oWhy? – The people get suspicious when there are so many people wrong and they stop believing it. And when there is not enough they do not feel like they need to conform to the rest of the group. Perceptional unity (or Disunity): effect level of conformity. When the group is unanimous we feel there is pressure to conform to them. If one breaks from the group then you feel more comfortable not conforming also. Even if it is knowledge of past nonconformity you feel like you can break the norm. Personal Causes of conformity: 1. Stress: this causes people to break and go along with the group. This is done in the military (behavioral change is what is normally done in the military). a. You will not go along with it well if you are too overwhelmed. 2. Orientation: 3 different types a. Conformist: individual that wants to get along and go along no matter what and will say and do anything and be happy about it. b. Ant-conformist: goes against the norm and they are sort of conforming by not conforming all at the same time. Example: Goths who are conforming as an anti- conformist (or a hipster). c. Independent: they don’t care what others think, just what they think. 2. Compliance: behavior change in response to a direct request. Foot-in-the door Technique: They asked someone about a big change after having them do a small related change since they already were supporting the change, the larger change was less dramatic. i. Have to have the first request small enough so that they will support it but important enough that they would be willing for a larger change. ii. They would go with their past behavior if they knew that it was something they would do in the past, means they will in the future. 1. Example: Darrell Bim: self-perception theory iii. The two requests have to be made by different people. iv. Response needs to be freely chosen so that they could go back and reflect on the behavior later. Door-in-the-face Technique: i. Increase likelihood of compliance when the first request is turned down and it is followed up by a much smaller request. Takes social responsibility into account. ii. First request should be something they would probably turn down (and something you would still like if they happen to accept it), but then when you’re turned down you still really want the second request that you had wanted to begin with. Low-Balling: i. When getting compliance you get the agreement and then change the request once you got it. Or increase cost afterwards. ii. This is a pervasive technique. 3. Obedience: when someone changes their behavior in response to directions from someone they will be willing to listen to. Video: Adopted roles really quickly and conformed to role of prison guide and inmate really quickly CLASS NOTES: 2/24/16 On research paper that is due on April 1st: Write in past tense 3 sources Don’t have to break down to intro, prospective, and how it is sometimes done. Do like a manuscript or have a methods paper. Need to have paraphrased and provided a citation. Need reference page at the end. Need to explain historical work and theories and empirical question, how they research, what they find and if they did anything with it. Arrange any way you would like, but have all aspects. Make up the results with the information that you have found. Let it reflect what you researched. Or statement of what you are expecting. Address: on content needed page. Going over study guide: Multiple audience dilemma: idea that we carve out identities (personas) and we don’t show our other self in situations where they do not fit correctly. Guys sometimes only have an identity that they show their girlfriend and then with their buds they are really different. So when the guy’s two worlds collide they are so different and he does not know which way to act! Can’t exhibit both parts of yourself in a moment like that so you have to choose which one to be. Inoculation: When you are trying to present yourself to an audience that is going to hold your fate in their hands, such as in politics. Individuals trying to present self in the broadest and likable manner possible. Some people come out with a scandal and apologize so that the scandal is out of the way and it inoculates them to the criticism that could have come up later where their competitor used it against them. You are saving yourself from future hurt or criticism. Laying out your dirty laundry on the front porch and get it out of the way so no one can use it against you. It is not the scandal it’s the cover-up that gets people in trouble! Balance theory: Similar to cognitive dissonance both based on homeostatic model (means balance) It is a pervasive biological process that we see, the system always has a balance to it. Cognitive dissonance: There are two competing ideas and this causes us to have to solve it. It could also be a mind and behavior conflict. Behavior and belief inconsistency is a possibly. Have to do one or the other, believe one get rid of the other. Balance in the mind. There are two competing thoughts and this causes disharmony and it is making the person unpleasant. We are motivated to relieve our self-front when it is unleveled and bring our self-back around to normal. Behavior cognition and cognition are the same. Systematic (or central rout): Self relevant (about you) Dual process model: (elaboration likelihood model is mostly talking about this) If the argument being presented is about you, self-relevant and will affect you, there is more likeliness that you will evaluate and research all the information Heuristic (peripheral route): rule of thumb and what is normally done It does not have anything to do with you, you won’t think about it as much and won’t care as much. Attitudes and measurements: When someone asks you information you will present your attitudes in the best way possible. You will lie and say the best possible thing for yourself. Won’t really be honest and you need to ask less straight forward questions in an interview and things like that so that they will not lie and this will help you get a real sense of their attitude. (Indirect questions.) Persuading hostile audiences: best to seem balanced and present the information in the best light and give both sides of the argument. Taking the middle pathway and they address the both sides in an even way, seem reasonable and have a two sided approach. Example George W Bushes balanced approach to taxes? Fear appeals with persuasion: got to provide a solution to this Example from past notes: Cracking egg on a pan and someone putting fear in your brain, but not giving you an alternate or an outcome that will give them reason to improve on the subject being debated.
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