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Intro Bio Week 5

by: thersh

Intro Bio Week 5 BIOL 1010


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Notes from week 6 of class - Human Evolution
Introduction to Biology
Stephanie Hutchins
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by thersh on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1010 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Stephanie Hutchins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
2/22/16 Session 1.7 Evidence for Evolution Fossils of > 250,000 species Commonalities: Molecular and Cell ­ Energy molecule: ATP ­ Amino acid structure: L­amino acids ­ Information molecule: DNA ­ Eukaryotic cell division: mitosis and meiosis ­ Catalytic activity ­ The tree of life diagrams make the point of descent from common ancestors.  Further evidence to  support this statement comes from: o Closely related species have greater homology in their genes. o The molecules of life are shared by all as are some of the processes (mitosis and  meiosis are eukaryotic only).  For example, energy is uniformly ATP in biological  systems. o The fossil record backs gradual adaptations in most instances except where there are  mass extinctions. o Homologous structures (such as the forelimb) can be traced from early life forms  through higher forms that share the same lineage. o Convergence is a different situation where species not closely related have developed analogous structures due to similarity of environments where the species live  (anteater example). o Even in early embryos there are commonalities among species that share a common  ancestor. o A number of proteins are conserved over large ranges of evolutionary time (bacteria  to humans) and the more closely related the species the fewer number of amino acid  substitutions found.  You completed a phylogenetic tree exercise based upon  cytochrome c) o Both animal and plant breeding are useful in demonstrating the ranges of phenotypes  available in a single species.  These studies illustrate species adaptation through small changes. o We present a number of examples of evolution in the wild to include: antibiotic  resistance of microbes, biocide and pesticide resistance of weed and insect species,  camouflage and mimicry by many species. o While we did not go over the Biston betularia or peppered moth example, slides are  presented during the in­class material and you should understand the basics of this  experimental system, its flaws, controversy, and resolution. 2/25/16 Session 1.8 Human Evolution Oldest Primate Fossil  ­ Ignatius clarkforkensis ­ Discovered 2006 Wyoming ­ Evolved 65­75 MYA ­ Arboreal (lived in trees), fruit eating ­ Size of large mouse “Missing Link” in Hominid Evolution ­ “Ida” (Darwinius masillae) bridges evolutionary split between higher primates such as  monkeys, apes, & humans and their more distant relatives such as lemurs (early  interpretation) ­ “The first link to all humans, the closest thing we can get to a direct ancestor." (public press) ­ Only complete fossil primate of any age that has been discovered. Until now evidence for  primitive primate evolution in Middle Eocene consisted of a few fragments. (actually true­ rare fossil) Early Primate ­ Aegyptopithecus zeuxis ­ Discovered 2006 in Egypt ­ Evolved 30 MYA ­ Arboreal, fruit eating ­ Size of a house cat ­ VERY SMALL BRAIN Order Primates ­ 233 sp. In 13 families ­ Evolved 80­75 MYA ­ Most arboreal and tropical Major Primate Traits ­ Grasping hand o Advantages:  Grip branches/objects/prey more powerfully and precisely  fashion/use tools ­ Binocular vision o Advantages:  Depth perception  excellent focus  advantage when living in tress  but limits field of view ­ Large brain o Advantages:  Sensory input, e.g. acute visual system  Motor output  Social interactions  Learning, memory, info gathering ­ Parental care ­ Sociality Figure 1Multiregional Model Where did H. sapiens arise? ­ Multiregional Model o Argues that H. erectus migrated to many locations by 1 MYA o Geographically separated populations gave rise to different races of H. sapiens in different locations o Gene flow prevented races from becoming species ­ Out of Africa Model o Argues H. sapiens arose in sub­Saharan Africa Figure 2 Out of Africa Model o H. sapiens migrated out of Africa and into regions where H. erectus had preceded them o Only after leaving Africa did phenotypic differences arise Earliest Fossils are African ­ Africa cradle of human evolution ­ No human fossils older than 2 million years exist anywhere but Africa ­ Homo erectus left Africa in waves from 2 million to 500,000  BC ­ Homo sapiens evolved in north Africa ~200,000 yrs ago – left in waves beginning  ~100,000  BC Genetic Evidence ­ Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) used to determine evolutionary history from mtDNA of  today’s human populations ­  Mutates 10x  faster than nuclear DNA ­ Inherited only from mother – hence no crossing over with paternal DNA  ­ Calculation of similarity amongst mtDNA sequences of extant groups allows construction of  a genealogical tree for groups having different types of mtDNA ­  This tree points to a Mitochondrial Eve ­ the woman defined by mtDNA analysis as a female living in Ethiopia ~150,000 years ago from which all living humans are descended


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