ECOL 1000 NOTES: 2/23/16-2/25/16
ECOL 1000 NOTES: 2/23/16-2/25/16 ECOL1000
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Peat on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ECOL1000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. J Vaun McArthur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Environmental Issues in Business at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
2/23/16 West Nile disease carried by same Zika mosquito o Transmission cycle differs; mosquito bird or mosquito horses or humans Agriculture and the environment Can we produce enough food? What are the environmental impacts? Dust Bowl 35 million acres were destroyed 125 acres lost topsoil we learned multiple lessons from this event 1. soil is key to food production 2. aggressive farming can cause soil erosion and drought 3. government can encourage soil conservation Human food needs we need calories; too little leads to undernourishment, missing chemical components leads to malnourishment and now too much leads to overnourishment What do we eat? 400,000 plant species known in U.S, 200 species are crops 14 spp. Form nulk of human diets: wheat, corn, rice and potatoes Agriculture basics types of agricultural techniques 1. monoculture 2. regular arrangement 3. plowed soils 4. chemical applications agricultural expansion conversion of new land into agricultural use agricultural intensification change agricultural practices; fertilization, irrigation, pesticides and high yielding crops Green Revolution producing more crops to feed world o post world war 2 led to increased productivity o done by selective breeding. pesticides and fertilizers o Success stories: Mexico went from .77 tons of wheat in 1920 to 2.65 tons in 1960 o Indonesia is similar but with rice Loss of food from field to mouth 50% lost from feeding animals and waste Drawbacks to agriculture developing nations depend on new technology requires irrigation and chemicals (chemicals have a large impact such as with air in Pakistan) high environmental impacts loss of traditional methods Agriculture and Nitrogen N is essential for protein synthesis natural supply highly limited most n tied up in atmosphere agriculture is massive N addition in soil humans add more nitrogen each year than all natural sources amount of N available in soil and waterways has doubled since 1940s Eutrophication creates a dead zone through middle U.S Soil Soil Profile: o Litter (O) o Topsoil (A) o Subsoil (B) o Transition Zone (C) Soil erosion is a major issue that can be prevented by 1. Contour farming 2. Strip cropping 3. Conservation tillage 4. Windbreaks Pollination Very important to food production; crops need it European honeybee apis mellifera Major drop in pop. In 2006; colony collapse disorder Adult workers disappear; developing broods are abandoned o Food stores remain o Queen remains o No predators Israeli acute paralysis affects bees by shivering wings, paralysis and death outside of hives Meet Future Food Demands Projections for 2050: 2 fold increase in N fertilizer and increase in pesticides Future demands presents major environmental challenges Need sustainable farming Greener Revolution Eating lower on food chain Organic farming Preserve and restore wetlands Better cropping methods Eat smarter to save food Fish Farming Americans and world in general are eating more fish will discuss more later 2/25/16 Solution to pollution is not dilution it’s stopping pollution Nature Reserves and Ecological Restoration Habitat loss is leading cause of biodiversity 40% of terrestrial land dominated by humans nature reserves=preservation o ecological restoration is also a part of this History of Protected Areas India was first, 400 B.C First national parks in England in 1508 Yellowstone is 1 park Preservation of Amazon Worldwide effort ARPA world’s biggest preservation program Nature Reserves These areas are set aside for conservation of nature: o National parks are forests o Wildness areas o Game reserves U.S Policies for conserving Biodiversity Park system sets a high standard Established for protection of habitat and preservation for human use There was a study done on effectiveness of corridors o Nick Haddard and Ellen Damschen of N.C State University studied corridors for 5 years o Studied biodiversity Goals of Nature Reserve Protect functioning ecosystems Protect Biological diversity Protect species of interest Large habitats protect more species Large animals require large habitats Large habitats support larger population size Grizzly Bears and More Genus name: ursus arctos horribilis For grizzly bears to persist for twenty years, the population must be above 250 (Yellowstone has 500) William Newmark studied mammal size: judged by reserve area vs # of mammal species o Found smaller and older a park is, more species lost Mammals are lost when park is <20,000 km^2 Only 3.5% of parks are large enough to maintain diversity Yellowstone to Yukon Connect protected areas for more than 2,000 miles from Yellowstone to Yukon’s Mackenzie Mtns. Critical to protection Wildlife corridors Allows migrations Can maintain larger population size Allows reconciliation if extinction occurs Comparing Reserve Traits Jared Diamond: single large reserve is better than several small Close reserves are better than far apart Connected better than unconnected Should be as big as possible PROTECT WILDLIFE COORIDORS Where should they (corridors) be located? Endemism when species are found in only one location Ex: centers in Africa Identify land for diversity protection (GIS, Geographical Information System) Gap analysis search for gaps to protect diversity; assessment of extent in which an area meets protection standards Ex: Hawaii Birds Where are most located? Largest parks set aside opportunistically Most are in low diversity areas (deserts, mountains) o Ex: Greenland Ice Cap and National Forest Fighting Odds 1940now; land area set aside has increased by 8 times rapid conversion to agriculture how can we protect Earth with only 6% of reserves? Ecological Restoration Fresh Kills Landfill; largest in world, closed in 2001 Their goal was to restore coastal scrub habitat They trucked in soils and planted trees What is ecological restoration? Process of assisting recovery of indigenous ecosystems Requires active changes to recreate physical and biological changes Why is ecological restoration not popular? Natural habitats are still abundant Undermines goal of conserving land Restored places are seen as “inferior” True restoration is not possible Recent changes made popular Legislation requires change of mine sites and wetlands Increased use of native vegetation Bioremediation Detoxify soils of substrates contaminated with heavy metals or organic compounds Plants endemic to metal soils may uptake toxic metals in tissue Restoration Principles 1. Do no harm 2. Eliminate processes causing degradation 3. Develop and execute methods 4. Remove toxins and add nutrients and seed dispensers 5. Monitor systems Puts scientists on offensive Have long lasting effects
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