Module 7 Notes
Module 7 Notes SPED 7007
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Module 7 Notes Effective Instruction for Behavior Written by: Krista Anstead February 2016 Learning Outcomes • Articulate the importance of instruction • Give examples of how to maximize success rates • Give key features of effective instruction Readings/References Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Effective instruction for behavior. In Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Acronyms • Learning curve = LC Chapter 7 Notes Importance of instruction • Circumstances and timing of natural learning are random and will not suffice for teaching complex or important skills • Consequences of failure to master the ability to read, write, or treat others with respect are similarly dire in the life of a child • Without the requisite skills, individuals will not attain new skills and behaviors • Assuming that S will learn in the absence of instruction is illogical and unproductive • With many of our S already facing lowered probability of success, we cannot afford to subject them to educational situations that do anything less than maximize their potential for success • Purpose: to increase the likelihood of success in a given instructional environment • Mission: provide instruction for appropriate behavior in ALL areas of the school, not just the classroom • Need to use instruction to create environments in which S are successful during 80% of their opportunities Link between social behavior and academic success • Mastery of social behaviors is assessed formatively, with observations of behavior on a very regular basis as part of the instruction • Specific teacher behaviors associated with S success rates o T should use area behaviors to make instructional components even more engaging and effective o T should create positive engagement that puts S at ease and creates impression that interaction with T can be very positive o T should reinforce S to be less fearful of volunteering answers in the future o T should engage S, capturing attention that can be used in a teachable moment Key features of effective instruction • Effective instruction requires the identification of goals and objectives for each lesson • Instruction cannot be considered complete until S has mastered the content • Feedback is an absolutely essential component of instruction – it must occur immediately with every S response • Abandoning instructional principles in the face of challenging behaviors and circumstances is illogical and largely ineffective • Principles of effective instruction presented are not just best practice, they are absolutely necessary • Every rule must be explicitly taught-‐ the full sequence of rationale, discussion, modeling, example sequences, and practice with feedback • Instruction for all expected behavior should take place prior to the time or context in which it is expected to occur The learning Curve • LC: visual representation of achievement across time • Acquisition: earliest stage of learning o S is becoming aware of a new skill and is practicing to acquire an initial ability to perform o Progress appears slow because performance does not accelerate quickly o Focus is on S demonstrating basic skills • Fluency: working with S to demonstrate skills more efficiently, with speed and accuracy paired as equally important outcomes o Performance is increasing at the highest rate o Focus is on memorization and speed o Ex: flashcards to memorize multiplication facts • Maintenance: fading instructional supports and expecting the S to remember more on his or her own o Involves removing prompts and presenting material with less structure o Associated with the flattening of LC • Generalization: shift of focus on instruction to successful demonstration of skills under an array of real-‐world conditions o Broad range of scenarios o Most difficult and most important stage o Thoughtful instruction at each preceding stage sets the occasion for effective generalization o Does not involve further achievement o LC is flat and occasionally decreases slightly as skills are practiced under novel conditions • Adaptation: last stage of learning in which T have a direct influence o S who can fluently generalize across a range of conditions are more able to actually change the skill in a subtle way and broaden the effect of its performance o Can occur only with skills that are within the repertoire of the learner • One must have acquisition before fluency, fluency before maintenance, maintenance, before generalization, and so on • T need to encourage creativity to facilitate higher rates of success at every other stage of learning Modeling • Purpose: show S explicit examples of skills they are able to perform • T main task during modeling is to show S explicit examples of skills they are able to perform • Key considerations o T must adequately consider full range of behaviors that are deemed appropriate and range of circumstances under which they are required o Each examples should show S something with a variation from the previous example o Teach the rule and then the exceptions • Specific considerations for presenting examples during instruction o Multiple examples should be presented during each lesson Curriculum-‐Based Assessment • T assesses S progress daily, based on goals for each lesson • T moves on to further objectives once S are successful with previous objective • Allows T to identify failures immediately Anchors for teaching rules • Teaching requires: o Content skills o Pedagogical knowledge o Ability to communicate in a genuine manner • Effective teachers: o Understand content being taught o Able to identify goals, provide examples, and assess with appropriate feedback and remediation o Establish a relationship with S in which there is mutual respect and trust • Environment o Routines and physical arrangements that are in place to facilitate S success o S line up at a certain place, lunch is at a certain time, and S may even have been assigned to certain seats o Certain areas or situations, which seem to always predict trouble for S in general, are even more likely to do so for the S who are most prone to trouble o Develop routines to avoid such predictable failures in areas where S are sometimes expected to work Db Post Directions: Post Answers to end of Chapter Questions 1 and 2 on the Discussion Board by Friday 11:59 pm of that week AND Please comment on the Discussion Board at least one of your classmates' answers/comments. Question 1: Provide an example of an acquisition objective for a math problem, a classroom rule, and a reading task. Question 2: For each acquisition objective you developed, create a fluency objective. Additional Paragraph: In the same Db thread (create a new paragraph) summarize one of the chapters of the text.
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