HY 110 Notes 2/25
HY 110 Notes 2/25 HY 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Spence on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 110 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Patrick Hurley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Comparative World Civ in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
February 25, 2016 CHINA - Chinese civilization begins around the Yellow River - Got its name because the current is so quick soil gets picked up giving it a yellow tint - Mao Zhe Dong - Yellow River prone to flood - Xia Dynasty (22001766BC/BCE) came into being due to the fact that their first king (Sage) named Yu, came up with a way to control flooding and was put into power. - Xia gradually lost power to Tang - Tang founded the Shang Dynasty (17661122) - Shang Dynasty = first written records of Chinese history and implementation of bronze technology - Kings of the Shang claimed surplus agriculture and used taxes to stabilize military power - Walled towns in the area now known as China - Leaders allowed to do their own thing within towns but always respected the king - Capital at Yin, where the Shang king lived in palaces and all other necessities for a city - Shang king was buried in a cave, along with 300 skeletons because when they die the family was expected to follow them into the afterlife - Zhou Dynasty existed alongside Shang, Zhou went out under their king. - King Wu helped Zhou come to victory - Zhou Dynasty (1122256) - When Zhou overthrew Shang, there were many reasons about the justification of this - King Wu’s brother, Duke of Zhou came up with an idea to explain the overthrow of Shang, CALLED MANDATE OF HEAVEN. - Mandate of Heaven = justification of the overthrow of previous dynasty. Said that the previous king was a tyrant, and that he was overthrown because “heaven wanted him overthrown” - Every king has a mandate from Heaven to rule (Tian Ming): if a king abuses his power he’ll lose his mandate to rule - Mandate: 1. Right to rule China given by heaven 2. Only one legitimate ruler of China 3. Right to rule is based on the personal virtues of the ruler and his good performance - If the mandate is lost, it can be regained, but after a civil war of sorts - Ruler had divine connections to heaven - Oracle bones were used to justify their rule (writings of speech on shoulderbones of speech) - When royal families died, they would join their ancestors in heaven - Anyone can get the mandate of heaven, even an emperor who came from a poor background (Ming Dynasty – one rule was very poor childhood and got hold of the mandate) - Mandate of Heaven 11221911 BC/BCE - Similar to European Principle of Divine Right of Kings - Drawbacks: makes rulers paranoid, kings/emperors developed pathological fear of being overthrown, possession of the mandate is “threatened” and they act bad due to them succumbing to their paranoia - Inevitable cycle of the rise and fall of dynasties - Zhou Dynasty: much larger than the Shang Dynasty causing it to decentralize - Subordinates gave allegiance and military support to government in return for some power, ONLY WORKS FOR A LITTLE TIME - Kings didn’t keep a close eye on subordinates and they began to do their own thing February 25, 2016 - End of Zhou: King’s credibility took a hit due to nomads who came into China and raided it regularly. - Zhou capital gets attacked by nomads and the Zhou loses credibility and only continues in name but everyone does their own thing. - Subordinates setting up states and fighting one another to determine the next ruler of China. - ART OF WAR CAME ABOUT AROUND THIS TIME - Period of division and is a complete mess during the period of warring states - People want to end the wars and unite China - Rise of the first real Chinese philosophies (Confucius) - Confucius: Kong Fuzi (Master Philosopher Kong) 551479 BCE - If they didn’t call him Master Philosopher Kong he beat his students up, and was from an aristocratic family, was obsessed with getting a permanent job - Confucius was super long to get along with because he felt superior to everyone else - Refused to get involved in politics, searching for a job by going from court to court - Analects become extremely influential on Chinese thought and culture (moral, ethical, and political while also being practical) - Wanted to examine philosophy to understand human relationships in order to restore law and order in society by creating a better government in hopes of unifying China - Believes that warring states were the fault of the “small men” - “small men” were all about themselves, had sticky fingers, and wanted to turn into snowflakes at the slightest bit of criticism, and were at the opposition to everything else and were believed to be responsible for the destruction of society. - Believed that the small men needed to be expunged, small men needed to be replaced with profound men or “junzi” - Profound men are professionals who do their job without being influenced by personal beliefs or judgments, in order of successfully getting the job done - Tried teaching his students, but there was no formal education system - Had to construct a curriculum - Used the Book of Etiquette (manners), the Book of Changes (divining, fortunetelling), Book of History (justified existence of Zhou Dynasty), Book of Songs (poetry) to put together his curriculum and help people determine what creates a profound man - Three Virtues to make a Junzi 1. Ren – attitude of kindness and benevolence (sense of humanity) people who displayed this were courteous, respectful, loyal, diligent 2. Li – sense of propriety, professionalism and it requires that all human beings treat each together with respect especially towards your boss or elders 3. Ziao – a sense of filial piety, or honoring your family, and it was believed that how you would begin was with Ziao, then children would be able to use Li and Ren. - Confucius pushed all of these because he believed that those with these three things could have a positive influence, lead by example, and create better government leaders - Believed that with Junzi in the government, civil wars would end - Basic template that’s been used for hundreds of years, also giving a base to other philosophers - Mencius: spent a lot of time as a freelance political advisor in a Confucian context, and was a lot friendlier. - Mencius was a lot more laid back, and took Confucius’ ideas and said Ren was the most important, and was what was needed the most for a strong government. - Was believed to be “too laid back” February 25, 2016 - Could become more forceful: said that if a ruler was so bad that they lost the mandate, people had the right to kill them. - Xunzi (298238) – disagreed with Mencius on the idea of Ren because he was actually employed and he saw that people are generally jerks, therefore Li is most important of the three virtues because a sense of professionalism and civility will ensure that all is fine - Daoism: Laozi/Laozu is the author of a philosophy where its clear that not everybody in China thought that you needed to be proactive in order to survive (opposite of Confucians) - Believed that people should be introspective and reflect on how to live with the natural world - Don’t try to change things they can’t control - They’re similar to hippies but less into social activism - Laozi: first work on Daoism called “Daodejihg” followed by “Zhuangzi” - The major force in the universe is the Dao; it governs everything and how the world works, unlike an interventionist God similar to the Old Testament, doing nothing but accomplishing everything. - Compare the Dao to water: put your hand in water there’s no real resistance, but after a while water can cause damage and make valleys, etc. Do nothing but accomplish everything. - Humans should retreat from politics and administration - Chaos and grief because best intentions turn into unintended consequences - Wu Wei: disengage from active involvement in worldly affairs, and only need to be one with the Dao. - Live simply, avoid advanced education to live with nature - The less government the better, people should live in small selfsufficient communes where people didn’t want to conquer their neighbors or really even interact with them (peaceful anarchists) - Daoists practiced Confucianism at work, at home they practiced Daoism - Its not one or another that brings China out of the period of warring states - Legalism brings China out of the period of warring states - Legalism is a ruthless philosophy, created by Shang Yang, and it doesn’t care about ethics or morality, or propriety, legalists are all about the state and strengthening the state while expanding it. - Shang Yang 390338 BC/BCE, prime minister to Duke of Qin - Qin was very underdeveloped - Shang Yang argued of legalist philosophy that were recorded in a book called “the Book of Lord Yang” - People hated Shang Yang, when his patron died and his enemies showed up at his house and killed him, chopped him up, and urinated on him, while doing the same to his family. - One of the biggest legalist thinkers: General Mao - Legalism places emphasis on the state, and the strengths lie in agriculture and military forces, everything else is secondary to these two most important things. - Farming and the army were the two most important jobs - Discouraged professions which they believed were less useful to the state - This philosophy works, because its all about making sure people focus on military and farming, and never step out of line. - Strict legal regimen needed to stabilize society. - Small crime committed = gateway to bigger crimes (litterer, soon to become a serial killer) - Severe punishments (ex. Littering, cut your arm off, then follow suit on your family because they were believed to have set a bad example) - First emperor of China was insanely ruthless, and was named Qin Shi Huang February 25, 2016 - “History begins with me”
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