Psychology 101 Lecture 9 and 10 Notes
Psychology 101 Lecture 9 and 10 Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adriana McGhee on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Alexa Tullett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro To Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Psychology Lecture 9 (22316) CONCIOUSNESS A state of awareness Awareness of the environment (being awake vs. being asleep) Awareness of sensations and their causes (ex: being able to recognize a feeling of fear, along with what caused it) Awareness of self (ex: being able to recognize oneself in the mirror rather than thinking the image is another person) WHY ARE WE CONCIOUS? Split brain patients say that they don’t see the things presented to their right hemisphere, but they still choose the object that corresponds to the word o Experimenter: “why did you choose the shovel?” o Patient: “to clean up the chicken coop” SELF AWARENESS Special understanding of the self as distinct from other stimuli o One way to test for selfawareness is to use the Rouge Test o Chimps, orangutans, gorillas raised by humans, bottle nosed dolphins, Asian elephants, and some parrots have passed the test SLEEP AND WAKEFULLNESS Circadian rhythm: a daily biological rhythm o We have a natural circadian cycle that lasts just over 24 hours o Circadian rhythms are influenced by external stimuli called zeitgebers ( zeit means time and geber means “giver”) o when these zeitgebers are removed we retuned to our natural cycle: light, eating Stages of sleep o REM sleep (rapid eye movement sleep) Brain activity resembles activity when awake Body is paralyzed Dreams occur More common in last 4 hours of sleep o NonREM sleep 4 stages: stages 1 through 4 get progressively deeper Dreaming: a mental state that usually occurs during sleep that features visual imagery o we only participate as character in our own dreams 15% of the time o most dreams involve routine places and activities o 70% of dreams involve negative content Why do we dream? o Activation synthesis theory: dreams arise from our brains attempt to interpret the physical sensations we feel during sleep o Developing survival strategies: dreams involve unconscious attempts to solve survival challenges that have occurred during waking life o Cognitive integration: dream involves the integration of new experiences with existing knowledge and memories Lucid dreaming o Conscious awareness of dreaming accompanied by the ability to control the content of the dream SLEEP DISORDERS Night terrors: a sleep disorder occurring in nonREM sleep in which the sleeper wakes suddenly in great distress, but without experiencing the imagery of a nightmare Insomnia: a sleep disorder characterized by an inability to either initiate or maintain normal sleep Narcolepsy: a sleep disorder characterized by the intrusion of REM phenomena into wakefulness CONCIOUSNESS AND BRAIN DAMAGE Coma: an abnormal state of deep unconsciousness Persistent vegetative state: an abnormal state following brain injury featuring wakefulness without consciousness Brain death: complete and irreversible lack of measurable brain activity There is preliminary evidence to suggest that people in persistent vegetative states can communicate by willfully controlling their brain activity o Experimenters train patients to imagine playing tennis when they want to communicate “yes” and to imagine navigating a familiar city when they want to say no Near death experience: an altered state of consciousness reported by people who were close to death due to cardiac or other medical problems that features out of body experiences, light at the end of the tunnel, and a state of calmness o Similar effects can be elicited by ketamine, which mimics the brains chemical response to brain damage DRUGS How would you define “drug”? Psychoactive drug: a substance that has the capability of altering a persons state of consciousness Often associated with: o Tolerance o Withdrawal o Addiction Tolerance: the need to administer greater quantities of a drug to achieve the same subjective effect Experienced user withdrawal: physical responses to the removal of some habitually administered drugs Hallucinogens: a drug that stimulates the experience of false perceptions o Ex: mushrooms, mescaline, PCP, weed, LSD Stimulants: a drug that increases the activity of the nervous system o Can increase the activity of excitatory neurotransmitters or decrease the activity of inhibitory neurotransmitters o Ex: coffee, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, Ritalin, MDMA (ecstatcy) Depressants: a drug that reduces the overall activity of the nervous system o Increase activity of the GABA neurotransmitter o Ex: alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates Opiates: drugs that imitate the activity of endorphins (endogenous morphine) o Ex: opium, morphine, heroin PRACTICE EXAM QUESTION Answer: stimulant LECTURE 10 (22516) MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Emotion: a combo of arousal, physical sensations, and subjective feelings that occurs spontaneously in response to environmental stimuli o Feelings Motivation: a process that arouses, maintains, and guides behavior towards a goal o Drives Homeostasis: a steady internal balance or equilibrium o Motivation helps to maintain homeostasis o Increase in body temp yields sweating o Decrease in body temp yields shivering EATING Cues for hunger o Stomach contractions (stomach growling) o Low levels of glucose available to cells o Low levels of stored fats (indicated by low levels of hormone leptin, which is produced by fat cells) Cues for satiety o Stomach fullness (can be mimicked by stapling or banding the stomach) o Hormone CCK, produced in digestive system when food arrives o High levels of stored fats (indicated by high levels of leptin) Obesity o Rates of obesity amongst 1829 year olds have risen from 18% in 1971 to 40% in 2006 o We evolved to prefer sweet, fatty foods. This was adaptive for our ancestors when food was scarce, but now these preferences work against us Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder characterized by the maintenance of unusually low body weight and a distorted body image o 1% of women, 0.3% of men Bulimia nervosa: an eating disorder characterized by bingeing, purging, and having feelings of depression, disgust, and lost control o 1.5% of women, 0.5% of men SEXUAL MOTIVATION Testosterone o Associated with sexual desire in males and females o Men who are married and having an affair have the highest testosterone levels, followed by single men, followed by men in monogamous long term relationships o Higher in men than women Oxytocin o Associated with romantic love in males and females o Released at orgasm in both sexes o Higher in women than men Mate preferences in men and women o In speed dating scenarios Gender differences in preferences disappear Sexual orientation o 4% of women and 9% of men report having engaged in homosexual behavior o 1% of women and 2% of men identify themselves as homosexual MOTIVATE TO AFFILIATE Affiliation: being associated with other people o Effects of social isolation on health are comparable to the effects of high blood pressure, lack of exercise, obesity, or smoking Maslow’s heirarchy of needs o Higher needs can only be achieved once lower needs are taken care of o Self actualization is the highest human need o In order: o Self actualization o Esteem o Love o Safety o Individual needs EXPRESSING AND INTERPRETING EMOTION Paul Ekman proposed 6 universal emotions. These emotions appear to be expressed and interpreted similarly across cultures THEORIES OF EMOTION JamesLange theory: a stimulus elicits a physical response, which we then experience as a subjective feeling Stimulus yields physical responses which yields subjective feeling Cannonbard theory: a stimulus elicits a physical response and a subjective feeling which are independent of each other Shactersinger theory: a stimulus elicits general arousal which can then be experienced as a variety of subjective feelings depending on ones assessment of the surroundings
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