BIO 1144 Sec 03 Week of Feb 22 Notes
BIO 1144 Sec 03 Week of Feb 22 Notes BIO 1144
Popular in Biology II Thomas Holder
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaren Davis on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Biology II Thomas Holder in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Introduction to Animal Form and Function Levels of Organization: • Cellular - Phylum Porifera (sponges - simplest in terms of animal organization) • Tissue - Cnidoris and Ctenophora • Organ - increase form and function • Organ System - 10 systems ◦ Integumentary ‣ Associated with external protection against injury and water loss ◦ Digestive ‣ Breakdown of molecules, absorption, waste elimination ◦ Nervous ‣ Regulation and coordination of body activities ◦ Muscular/Skeletal ‣ Locomotion, protection, movement of materials through the body ◦ Circulatory ‣ Transport of solutes through the body ◦ Respiratory ‣ Gas exchange ◦ Excretory (Urinary) ‣ Regulation of body fluids and elimination of soluble waste ◦ Endocrine ‣ Hormonal control and activity ◦ Reproductive ‣ Ultimate goal of the reproductive system is production of eggs, gametes, sperm ◦ Immune/Lymphatic ‣ Defense against pathogens Organism Level - structure and function • 4 Basic Tissue Types: ◦ Epithelial Tissue ◦ Connective Tissue ◦ Muscle Tissue ◦ Nervous Tissue Tissues - 4 Major Groups • Epithelial ◦ Sheets of continuous cell that cover or line a surface or cavity ◦ Cells are tightly packed together ◦ Is separated from underlying connective tissue by basal lamina (basement membrane) ◦ Classification: ‣ Number of cell layers • Simple epithelial (1 layer) • Stratified epithelial (2 layers) ‣ Morphology - cells • Squamous cells - sort of flat cells, a little oval shaped, nucleus in the middle; simple or stratified • Cuboidal - nucleus is centered; simple or stratified • Columnar - rectangular cell, nucleus is lower; simple or stratified ◦ Types of Epithelium ‣ Simple squamous epithelium • Single layer of flat cells • Functions: ◦ Exchange of materials ◦ Secretion - where materials are being moved from the out to the inside of the vessel ◦ Absorption - taking something from the inside and moving it to the outside ‣ Simple Cuboidal Epithelium • Single layer of cube shaped cells • Functions: ◦ Absorption ◦ Secretion ‣ Simple Columnar Epithelium • Single layer of rectangular cells • Functions: ◦ Secretion ◦ Absorption ◦ Protection ‣ Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium • "Simple" • Falsely stratified ◦ All of the cells touch the base of a membrane ‣ All cells contact with basal lamina ◦ Cells vary in height 1 cell thickness • Functions: ◦ Secretion ◦ Absorption ◦ Protection ‣ Stratified Squamous Epithelium - multi layered • Outer cells are dead; cytoplasm is replaced by keratin • Functions: ◦ Protection ‣ Stratified Cuboidal/Stratified Columnar • 2-3 layers of cells (thick) • Function ◦ Transport ◦ Barrier ‣ Transitional Epithelium • Stretchable epithelial cells • Connective Tissue ◦ Connect or bind or anchor or support structures ◦ Groups ‣ Loose (areolar) Tissues • Helps hold internal organs in place • Lines the body cavity • Loose fibers arranged together • Very common • It's not dense ‣ Dense Connective Tissue • Fibers are tightly packed together to strength and support body parts • Examples ◦ Tendons ◦ Ligaments ‣ Cartilage • Helps bind structures together to support and for flexibility • Provides cushion so the bones don't rub together • Thick fibers packed tightly together ‣ Bone Tissue • Support and protection ‣ Adipose (fat) • Support, protection, energy storage, insulation ‣ Blood • Transport mechanism, connecting one organ to another by carrying things through, also used for protection because it carries protective cells • Muscle Tissue ◦ Skeletal - "voluntary" ‣ Attached to bone ‣ Movement of the body ‣ Composed of a lot of tightly packed tubules ‣ Consciously controlled ‣ Automatic relaxes ◦ Smooth Muscle - "involuntary" ‣ Consists of layers of tightly packed oval cells • Can be a huge sheet ‣ Found in the walls of cavities, tubes, and orbitals ◦ Cardiac Muscle - pumping of blood ‣ Heart ‣ "Involuntary" ‣ Consists of tubules • Nervous Tissue ◦ Initiates and conducts signals within the body ‣ Smooth muscle is controlled by nervous tissue ◦ Central nervous system = brain + spinal cord ◦ Neurons = nerve cells ‣ Carry signals ‣ Outnumber by neruroglial cells ◦ Neuroglial Cells ‣ Produce maintains, ion balance, and metabolic support in the tissues ‣ Keep the nervous tissue clean ‣ Provide nutrition to neurons • Organs : ◦ Example - stomach ◦ Connective tissue ◦ Smooth Muscle Tissue - ◦ Nervous Tissue - ◦ Epithelial • Organ System - ◦ Structure/Function ‣ Predict or determine Integumentary System • Skin and all the accessory structures • Vertebrates ◦ Skin is the largest organ ◦ Functions ‣ Protection from damage and water loss ‣ Barrier to pathogens ‣ Protection from UV light ‣ Temperature regulation ‣ Sensory receptors • Sense of touch ‣ Limited ion release • Skin - 2 layers ◦ Epidermis - outer; thinner ‣ Stratified and squamous epithelium ‣ Langerhans Cells • Defense cells associated with immunity ‣ Melanocytes • Pigment cells; assist with UV protection ‣ Merkel Cells • Special tactile or touch sensory receptors ‣ Keratinocytes • Produce keratin (causes the cells to harden up) ◦ Dermis - inner, thicker ‣ Highly vascularized • A lot of vessels ‣ Vessels, sensory structures, glands, nerves ‣ Hair (feathers, scales) originates in the dermis ‣ Meisssneris Corpuscles • Associated with the sense of light touch ‣ Pacinian Corpuscles • Associated with deep pressure vibrations ‣ Sweat Glands • Ducts on the outside • Affiliated with temperature regulation by the process of evaporative cooling • 2.5 million • Ion secretion • H2 O secretion ‣ Sebaceous Glands - Sebum • Sebum- softens and lubricates hair and skin • Entire body except llamas and soles • Most enhanced on face, neck, and chest • Secrete sebum ◦ Hypodermis - not part of skin ‣ Under skin ‣ Support for skin ‣ Stores fat adipose tissue) ‣ Insulation ---> holding in heat ‣ Typically females have thicker hypodermis compared to men • Why women's skin is softer Digestive System
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