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J1100 January 25-27

by: Cassidy Hall

J1100 January 25-27 1100

Cassidy Hall
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Notes from class on january 25th and 27th
Principles of American Journalism
Marina Hendricks
Class Notes
Journalism 1100




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Hall on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1100 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Marina Hendricks in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Principles of American Journalism in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
Journalism and Democracy January 25,2016 James Harry: Communication and media scholar Journalism and Society Journalism is a social institution  Ex: Family, education, healthcare, and government We Have journalism for several reasons:  Economic  Political  Legal o Who regulates journalism?  Cultural  Ethnological History of US Journalism mirrors history of the US (generally speaking)  Broadly “libertarian”; concerned with freedom  Emerges out of Enlightenment Philosophy US Journalism; US Society Core ideals  Publication as an extension of free speech  No restriction; no punishment  Free competition leads to the triumph of truth over falsehood  Free press best achieved through free market  Principle enemy of freedom is the state  Countries have government-subsidized journalism, but still operationally free (e.g., UK, Scandinavia, Canada)  More to worry about than just the state o NOTE THAT THESE ARE IDEALS, NOT NECESSARILY FACTS Origins of US Journalism First US newspaper in 1690, Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestik (Boston) Early Press was noisy and partisan  No notion of objectivity or public service  The goal was to support political parties and make money But some things have remained  “Great inconvenience may arise by the liberty of printing” o (British government to the governors of Massachusetts) o Powerful interests don’t like scrutiny “There is nothing so fretting and vexatious, nothing so justly terrible to tyrants… as a free press” – Sam Adams John Milton  English poet, 1608-1674  Licensing order of 1643  Wrote Areopagitica (1644), a passionate defense of free speech  He was the originator of “Market place of ideas” concept. (Though. He did not actually use the phrase)  Notion of “truth and falsity grappling” and the “ self- righting process”  “Give me the liberty to know, to utter, and to argue freely according to conscience, above all liberties “ “Rational Man” Argument Reason as the source of truth  Not authority ( “…because I told you so) o (or ”…because God tell you so”) o (or “…because the government tells you so)  Not tradition ( “…because that’s the way it has always been) Part of the shift away from authoritarianism to democracy (essentially, self rule)  Age of Enlightenment; revolutions in philosophy and science What is Democracy? Many variants, but characterized by:  Free elections  Full enfranchisement  Each votes is equal  Majority ruler (with caveats)  Independent judiciary  Equality before the law  Guarantees of all civil liberties From the Greek demos (people) and kratos ( power/rule) Core idea: sovereignty of the people (informed by rational many theory) Democracy is a system of government in which the people govern themselves. Typically characterized by free elections in which every adult can participate, freedom of expression, and an independent judiciary, this kind of self- governance stands in contrast to monarchies, dictatorships, theocracies and other forms in which an unelected person or small group of people hold power. (pp. 4) What Democracy Needs from Journalism Information Dissemination o Helping people make informed decisions o Giving people the capacity for self- rule Accountability o Hold the powerful to account o “Comfort the afflicted and afflict the comforted” Representation o Counterbalance institutional power o Ensure that voices are heard Deliberation and Conflict Resolution o Conversation as the cornerstone or community 3 Metaphors o The Mirror:  Reflects society as it is (warts and all) o The Watchdog:  Will bark to sound the alarm  Will bite to defend the little guy  Journalists keep an eye on things o The Marketplace:  Will provide a robust “marketplace of ideas” to ensure we get a range of topics, views, and issues. Journalism and Democracy Part 2 January 27, 2016 How does the press fulfill democratic needs? Journalism informs, analyzes interprets and explains.  Walter Lipmann Journalism is used as a bridge connecting the citizen to society Information: the stuff that happens News: the stuff that happens, that journalists deem to be important Journalism links the citizen to society Helps explain politics and other complex things Journalism investigates  Watergate Costs journalists in an adversarial role  A relentless adversary of the powerful Using sources and public records to expose corruption, wrongdoing, etc. Journalism creates a public conversation  Social media  Comments on stories Journalism helps generate social empathy  Helps us appreciate diversity and difference  Helps us connect with one anther to recognize our common humanity Journalism encourages accountability Journalism is the “Fourth Estate” Journalism as “ a fourth institution outside government” Government cannot keep itself accountable and nor would we ant it to  Other institutions need to be held to account, proportionate to their power and influence Five Freedoms  Religion  Assemble  Speech  Press  Petition Government is not the only threat to journalistic freedom  Cutbacks  Quest for metrics (ratings, views, etc.)  Cost of entry into the marketplace  Advertiser pressure  Source pressure Hutchins Commission Commission on freedom of the press Commissioned by Time, publisher Henry Luce to investigate condition of Press Freedom in the US in 1942 The Commission argued that press freedom was in danger, but because of press performance  Rights come with responsibilities  “Freedom From” vs. “Freedom to” Ensured idea that journalism is a public service and should be conducted professionally Social responsibility theory of the press The Recommendations  “ A truthful comprehensive, and intelligent account of the day’s events in a context which gives them meaning.” o Take care in reporting o Get Authentic sources o Avoid hearsay o Know what questions to ask o Clearly separate fact and opinion o Treat isolated facts as useless-context is king “A forum for the exchange of comment and criticism “  Promote freedom of expression  Avoid anonymous sources whenever possible  Represent “important viewpoints” and Alternate thought “The projection of a representative of a picture of the constituent groups in the society”  Challenge stereotypes by promoting fact  Pay close attention to words and images  Remember our shared humanity  Build respect and understanding for all groups “ The presentation and clarification of goals and values of society”  Educational role  US values (Democracy, freedom, etc.) “Full access of the day’s intelligence”  Make information available to as many people as possible  Write for broad-based audiences


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