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Chapter 3

by: Alana Dison
Alana Dison
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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these notes cover some of the material on the exam
Class Notes
biology krayesky




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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alana Dison on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
CHAPTER 3: THE CHEMICL BASIS OF LIFE-ORGANIC MOLECULES Organic Chemistry -organic molecules contain carbon Carbon -can form up to 4 bonds -has 4 electrons in its outer shell -carbon can form polar and non polar bonds -Functional Groups -groups of atoms with special chemical features that are functionally.. *-Amino *-Carboxyl *-Hydroxyl *-Phosphate Isomers -2 structures with a identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics -if we have a different shape, we have a different molecule -Structural isomer -same amount of atoms, but some may be in different places -Geometric isomer -Hydrogens will either be on the same side(cis)---or Hydrogens will be on opposite sides(trans) -look for double bonds/same number and type of atom -Enantiomers -mirror images of one another -compared to having a pair of shoes and switching the shoe on each foot-the shoes are mirror images but don’t fit on each foot -4 Major types of organic molecules and macromolecules -Carbohydrates -composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms -Cn(H2O)n -most of the carbon atoms in a carb are linked to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group -Monosaccharides - the monomer -simplest sugars -either 5 or 6 carbons -Glucose isomers -alpha and beta on a glucose molecule tell whether it is an isomer -Disaccharides -carbs composed of 2 monosaccharides -when you build macromolecules, water is produced -taking them away also requires water (hydrolysis) -Polysaccharides -many saccharides -Lipids(fats) -composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon atoms -they are non polar and therefore very insoluble in water(defining feature)--- hydrophobic -Monomers: Triglycerides -formed by bonding glycerol to 3 fatty acids -joined by dehydration or condensation reaction that form ester bonds -broken apart by hydrolysis -all carbons are linked by single covalent bonds- saturated(saturated with hydrogen held by single bonds -unsaturated: double bonds and shape of orbitals will cause a bend- don’t form a solid -important for energy storage, cushioning, and insulation, forming membranes, insulating cells -Phospholipids -formed by adding a phosphate head -glycerol: -phospholipids will form an enclosed sphere and are critical to the structure of the plasma membrane -shape adds to the ability to form the cell membrane -Steroids -phospholipids equal to half of a steroid -cholesterol is a steroid -trans fat: unsaturated fatty acids with hydrogen bonding to the carbon so that it becomes a solid -Proteins -composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen -Monomers: amino acids -held with a covalent bond -R group is what varies in an amino acid -Cysteine--memorize -Peptide bond -broken apart by hydrolysis -joined by dehydration or condensation -the N terminus is part of the amino acid -folds into structures -primary -amino acid sequenced determined by genes -secondary -held together by hydrogen bonds -can be broken and put back together -alpha helix ad double pleated sheets -ertiary -formed by strong double covalent bond-disulfide bridge (primary bond!) -Van der Waals -H bonds -Ionic bonds -quaternary -forms really large proteins -globular structure -holds the structure together with hydrogen bonds, ionic, and Van der Waals --everything except covalent -proteins are structurally important -proteins are precise-bc of structure levels-what allows this are the bonding patterns -Nucleic Acids -function: store genetic of material -2 classes -DNA -store genetic info coded in sequence of their monomer building blocks -RNA -between DNA and proteins -monomer: nucleotide -made up of phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a base -held together by phosphodiester bond -Carbon 1 hold nitrogenous base -Carbon 2 determines whether we have DNA or RNA/is there an oxygen or not -Carbon 3 determines the binding -Carbon 4 doesn’t do much -Carbon 5 is holding the phosphate group -RNA does not have Thymine -bonds are favored bc of chemical stability (A-T, C-G) -Pyrimidines (T, C, U)) always bond to Purines (A, G)


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