Class Note for EECS 563 with Professor Frost at KU
Class Note for EECS 563 with Professor Frost at KU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Network Organization and Standards 4 Victor S Frost Dan F Servey Distinguished Professor Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Kansas 2335 Irving Hill Dr Lawrence Kansas 66045 Phone 785 8644833 FAX785 8647789 email frosteecskuedu http WWW ittc ku edu Organization and Standards 1 Network Standards and Open Systems I Standards Organization Objectives I Standards Organizations I Open System Network Requirements I Layered Architecture I Goal Understand how networks are described Organization and Standards 2 Network Standards and Open Systems Need for Standards I Enable interoperability of equipment from different vendors I Facilitate the building of a large market to reduce prices amzation and Standards 3 Network Standards and Open Systems Problems with Standards I Freezes technology I Multiple standards evolve for same system I Standards take a long time to be established I Difficult to evolve to meet rapidly changing needs I Often standards are complex I De facto standards often emerge amzation and Standards 4 Network Standards and Open Systems Obiectives for Standards I Fulfill need for standards thru gt Development gt Establishment gt Promulgation I Coordinate activity I Assure consensus I Information focal point I Mechanism for management Organization and Standards 5 Network Standards and Open Systems Standards Orqanizations I American National Standards Institute gt Manufacturers gtOrganizations gtGovernment gt Users Organization and Standards 6 Network Standards and Open Systems International Standards Organizations I Internet Engineering Task Force IETF gt Request for Comment RFC I Electronic Industries Association EIA gt Electronic manufacturers I International Telecommunications Union ITU Formerlyz Consultative Committee International Telegraph Telephone CCITT gt National PTT s gt Scienti c organizations I IEEE I Forums eg Frame Relay and ATM gt Vendors gt Users Organization and Standards 7 Open Systems l I Standards lead to Open Systems I With open systems customers are not locked into one vendor s solution I Open systems lead to a llseamless user environment eg www Chapterz Organization and Standards 8 Network architectures and the Reference Models I Open systems are build upon a Layered Architecture of the network I Layered Architecture is the structuring of network functions I Note that a network protocols are one example of realtime distributed processing Organization and Standards 9 Network architectures and the Reference Models I Reference models provide gt A conceptual framework to characterize networks gt A mechanism to control describe the complexity of networks gt Required for open systems Organization and Standards 10 Network architectures and the Reference Models I Layered Architectures must have gt Structure gt Symmetry gt Peer protocols I Structure is the collection of related processing functions into layers Organization and Standards 11 Network architectures and the Reference Models I Symmetry requires compatible functions exist is source destination systems I Peer Protocols are the set of rules that govern the processing between peer entities ie the source destination Network architectures Underlying Principles I Minimize the number of layers thus simplifying the tasks of describing and integrating different layers I Establish boundaries at points where the description of services is small and the number of interactions is minimum I Create layers that include different functions Network architectures Underlying Principles I Establish boundaries where history demonstrates that the implementation can be partitioned I Engineer layers so that they can could be redesigned to take advantage of new technology without changing the services and interfaces of adjacent layers I Allow for the bypassing of sublayers I Each layer should add value Organization and Standards 14 Layered Architecture G Source E State 5 Destination Infognation Message Flow Message Flow Organization and Standards 15 P D U s and S D Us 0 39Protocol Data Units PDU PDU packets A A U mm between Peer entities 39Service Data Units mm com g SDU packets max at A mm mm between layers m WTERFAE B U W u m e 1 Organization and Standards 16 Layered Architecture internationai Organization for Standardization 080 Open Systems interconnection Modei DSi Sl Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical ngnlmunlimlnk 17 Physical Layer I DTE DCE interface gt Data Terminal Equipment PC gt Data Communications Equipment Modem I Electrical optics radio connections I Mechanical connections I Functional Requirements I Proceduralprotocol I Bittransmission ngnlmunlimlnk 18 Data Link Layer I Manage the link connection I Supervise data interchange I Synchronize and delimit I Frame block sequencing I Link flow control I Link Error Control I Abnormal condition recovery I Identification and parameter exchange Organization and Standards 19 Network Layer I Routing and switching I Network connections I Logical channel control I Segmenting and blocking I Error recovery I Sequencing and ow control Organization and Standards 20 Network Layer I Guaranteed Delivery eventually I Guaranteed Delivery with delay bound I For packet ows if defined gt ln order delivery gt Guaranteed minimal data rate eg in b s gt Guaranteed minimal jitter 1 gt Security Packet Arrival jitter at dest o g anon andStandards 21 Transport Layer I Mapping I Multiplexing gt Multiple sessions on one transport pipe I Endtoend error control I Flow regulation I Manage concatenated networks Organization and Standards 22 Session Layer I Administrative services gt Binding connections gt Unbinding connections I Dialog Services gt Control data exchange gt Interaction and synchronization gt Exception reporting Presentation Layer I Interpretation of data I Data transformation I Data formatting I Syntax selection I Structuring of data Organization and Standards 24 Application Layer I Highest layer I Serves as window to 081 I Functions to provide all services I Comprehensible to the user e g gt Identi cation gt Availability of resources gt Authority gt Authentication gt Agreement on syntax I Layer management function egmtmmsmm 25 Layered Architecture EndtoEnd Perspective T IE 8 LAY FRED ARCHITECI URE IIII mrwNH 7 WM 1 7 mr mum Wquot my u39mrw 1m l MW rm mm mm 1 gt1 mm rmMmRI 1 mmer Nrrwwx wwm r m r xxx mwm mmrwu r m mow egmtmmsmm 26 Layered Architecture Applicalion Applicaliun Presentation Presentation Session Session TWI SPOrt Network Network Transport Nelwoi k I I Nelwoi k ata Lin pan Link pan Link pain Link Data Link Data Link i39iuximi i39hpiuil i39msimi Physical Physical 4 Organization and Standards 27 Layering logical communication Eg transport apiiicationl transport I take data from app ne r I add addressing link reliability check physical info to form network quotdatagramquot application link 239 I send datagram to Transporl physical network Peer link I wait for peer to ack physical I receipt application licat10n 1 I ff transport 0 frarhmirt I ana ogy post 0 Ice network network link link physical physical From CummterNetwwkmg A Top Down Appmm Featuring the Internet Orgamamn and Standards 28 2nd edition Iim Kurose Keith Ross Addisoanesley Iuly 2002 ical communication ne In SI 0 a lication O O trans ne r in a lication trans ort he in From Cummtzr Netwmkmg A Top Down Appmurk mermg my Internet Organization and Standards 29 2nd edition Jim Kumse Keith Ross Addisoanesley luly 2002 Protocol layerinq and data Each layer takes data from above I adds header information to create new data unit I passes new data unit to layer below source destination application application message IHI M I transport transport IHtI M Segment IHnIHiI M network network IHaniI M I datagram IHIIHnIHtI M I link link IHIIHnIHtI M I frame physical physical From Cummtzr Netwmkmg A Top Down Appmurk mermg my Internet 2nd edition Jim Kumse Keith Ross Addisoanesley luly 2002 Organization and Standards 30 outer 393 Network layer entity Network la er entit Data link layer entity y y Transport layer entity Mudi ed 39um Leuanarna at wimp Commumcmron Mrwovk Organization and Standards Encapsulation TCP Header contains source amp destination HTTP Request port numbers HTTP Request Ethernet Header contains 3 source amp destination MAC 3 TCP addresses header header HTTP ReqUBSt network protocol type 3 IP Header contains source and destination TCP IP addresses header transport protocol type Ethernet IP TCP header header header HTTP ReqUBSt FCS Organization and Standards 0 Example of Encapsulation IP over SONET over WDMPacket over SONET HTTP Request 11 source and T c desunauon port Head numbers Headermmm a z source and destination 1P IP addresses Heade transport protocol type HZDLC framing HDLC HDLC of PPPrencapsulaLed datagams V SONET OH Organization and Standards 33 Layered Architecture I Presentation What does the peer look like I Sessions Who is the Peer I Transport Where is the Peer I Network What is the route to the peer I Link How is each step along the rout taken I Physical How is the transmission medium used Organization and Standards 34 Layered Architecture TCPIP TCWII Applicatinn Transport hosttolmst Internet Network Access Physical Orgamzahan and Standards 35 Layered Architecture TCPIP I Physical layer is same as in 081 I Network Layer gt Interaction between endesysterns and network gt Source provides destination address through network layer gt Makes higher layer software independent of underlying networking technology Orgamzahan and Standards 36 Layered Architecture TCPIP I Internet Layer gtRouting between networks gtIrnplernented in end systems gtIrnplernented in routers gtInternet Protocol IP Orgamzanon and Standards 37 Layered Architecture TCPIP I Transport Layer gtReliable endto end transport Transport Control Protocol TCP gtUser datagram protocol UDP gtOthers eg Real Time Protocol RTP Layered Architecture TCPIP I Application Layer gtftp gtte1net gtMa1391 gtWWW OWN mm 39 Example Protocol Stack Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS Protocol Architecture User Plane t I Am I I up I I I I I i i I rncr arm I ctru i I l i t I Inc nor 1 H m I l I i I 3quot u I n w I f H n I i Iuv L1 I L1 L I L1 L3 I i Li H LI LI r l39 v I l SISN n r II quot hm quotw luvs C L n quot Lamml mm m I s l mmpml New 39 lintmm 0mm FF Framing Prutucul GTPVUGPR5 Tunneling Pmmcuruw PDCP Pack2tbamcunv2rgence Prumcul me 622quotHeuenkwwwhumecsutwemenlh2u2nkmwnslidesLecturer5206ZDslidesZDp2rZDpagepdf OWN mm 40 Example Protocol Stack High Speed Data Packet AccessHSDPA rcr u ixunrslrm tr ll riicr ruei err ti Gl39l vll GFY39M err ll kw MC unww umiw linwu Um39lll w Nonmk Am ATM Lan LEM Ll II H M it it ur Num 3 kn now is ccsu amine GTPU ems tunneling protocol GTPU is used for carrying user data within the ems core network and between the Radio Access Network end the core network Frum Mohamed Assaad Zeghlache Diurnal TCP Perfurmclnce Over UMTseHsbPA swans CRC Press 2nu7 05 an mamas 41 Layered Architecture OSI and TCPIP Sl l39Cl llP Applicaliun A Iimliun l rcscnlulion p Session Suflwlu39e Transport Transport hostlohnsl Internet Network Flrmwal39e Nclwurk l Dalullink Acme llnrrlwnro Pm39mg So1em Physical Physical From HigheSPeed Networks 05 an mamas 42 W StallmgSJ mnnCE Hall 1998
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