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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reilly Barrera on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2210 at Ohio University taught by Matt Scanlin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Psychology of Adulthood and Aging 01/25/2016 ▯ Monday 1/25 – ▯ Variables in Developmental Research IV (manipulated factor) vs. DV (observed outcome) Age is not a true independent variable; studies on aging are never true experiments bc age can’t be manipulated (Age is quasi- experimental) o Much more difficult to make causal inferences ▯ Descriptive Research Designs Describing age differences but saying why differences occur 3 factors can influence performance on psychological measures o Age – measures change within the individual o Cohort (year/period of birth) – influences relative to history at time of birth o Time of Measurement – current influences on individuals being tested, effect all people regardless of when born o If you know two of these values, you can figure out the third Can’t separate age from context – Main problem! Longitudinal Designs o Study of changes across ages in one cohort at a time o Trying to determine whether people have changed over time as a result of age o Perspective design – sampling from population of interest before they develop a particular illness attribute and follow over time (ex. CVD development) o Challenges – determining whether changes observed over time result from person’s own aging or environmental changes, expensive, problem of attrition, practice effects o Advantages – allow collection of large amount of data, can follow people over long periods of time Cross-sectional Designs o Study of cohort differences at one time of measurement, used more frequently than longitudinal designs o Older adults often compared to younger adults o Challenges – hard to specify if you’re documenting effects of age or effects of cohort, influenced by current events, finding comparable measures for older and younger adults, deciding on age ranges and how to divide sample o Advantages – takes less time, less expensive, can use up-to-date technology ▯ Sequential Research Designs Time-sequential Designs o data are organized by age and time of measurement (age X time of measurement) Cohort-sequential Design o cohorts are compared at different ages (cohort X time of measurement) Cross-sequential Design o cohorts are examined at different times of measurement (age X cohort) Most efficient design – combination of all three sequential research designs o Allows us to determine which variable is influencing outcome ▯ Simple Correlational Designs Relationships observed among variables as they exist in the world Correlation = “r”, shows extend of relationship between 2 variables o Strength is -1 to +1, negative correlation to positive correlation No ability to detect causality ▯ Multivariate Correlational Designs Advantages o Control for confounds related to age, allow investigations of causality, provide ways to examine change over time Disadvantages o ▯ Types of Analysis Multiple Regression o set of predictor variables defined and used to predict the DV o Logistic Regression - Test likelihood of individual receiving a score on discrete yes/no variable Path Analysis o Examines all possible correlations among a set of variables to see if they can be explained by a single model of directional paths Structural Equation Modeling o Test paths involving latent variables as well as measured variables o Ex. Attempt to predict mobility from flexibility and balance in older adults Hierarchical Linear Modeling o Growth curves for each individual are examined of the time course of the study ▯ Data Collection Methods Laboratory Studies o Participants tested in systematic fashion using standardized procedures, often involving a task o Advantages Objective and systematic, can control for a lot of things o Limitations Potentially not externally valid Qualitative Studies o Explores complex relationships in situations that don’t lend themselves to restrictions and assumptions of quantitative methods o Ex. interviews o Advantage Provide alternative ways to test hypothesis o Limitation Aren’t as objective and systematic Archival Research o Use existing resources containing data relevant to a question about aging o Advantage Data already collected, readily accessible o Limitation No control over how data was collected or what measures were used, relying on others observations Surveys o Gain info about a sample that can be generalized to a larger population, typically short answer or multiple-choice o Advantage Cheap, easy, large amount of data quickly, short o Limitation People aren’t always honest, biased responses Epidemiological Studies o Study frequency of particular disease in the population o Results provide researchers with prevalence and incidence o Prevalence – estimate of people who have ever had systems in a particular period o Incidence – estimates of percentage of people who first developed symptoms in a particular periods, % of new cases of a disease Case reports o In-depth analysis of particular individuals o Advantage Rely heavily on clinical judgment o Limitation Helpful for rare diseases Focus Groups o Meeting of respondents asked to provide feedback about a certain topic of interest, used to develop research questions o Often used in qualitative research Daily Diary o Participants enter data on a daily basis such as personal ratings or activities o Advantages Track small variations in conditions that influence day to day function, gather lot of data o Limits Time extensive, expensive o Ex. Sleep research Observational Method o Researchers draw conclusions about behavior based on careful and systematic examination Meta-analysis o Statistical procedure allowing researchers to combine findings from independently conducted studies o Advantage Allows very large sample size ▯ Measurement Issues in Adult Development and Aging Validity - whether test measures what it’s supposed to measure o Content Validity Is test measuring the content it’s supposed to measure? o Criterion Validity Whether test score accurately indicates performance on an indicated measure Ex. Does HS GPA predict College GPA? o Construct Validity Convergent Validity Does this measure correlate with other measures used for same thing Discriminate Validity Opposite of ^ Reliability – idea that a measure should yield consistent results every time it’s used o Internal Consistency Indication of whether respondents measured similarly on comparable items within a measure o Test-Retest whether respondents received similar scores each time a test is given ▯ Ethical Issues APA’s ethical guidelines for research o 1) Informed Consent Awareness of study procedures, risks and benefits o 2) Debriefing Information at study’s completion about its true purpose o 3) Suggest Resources Provide info relevant to participant’s experiences o 4) Right to Withdraw Participant can withdraw without penalty o 5) Confidentiality of Data Participant will not be identifiable in published reports and data will be securely scored o IRB ▯ ▯ Wednesday 1/27 – ▯ Appearance Skin o Epidermis – outermost layer Over time epidermal skin cells lose their regular patterning o Dermis – middle layer Contains collagen and elastin, changes over time in collagen and elastin lead to skin sagging o Subcutaneous fat layer – bottom layer Starts to thin in middle adulthood exacerbating wrinkling and sagging Blood vessels become more visible o Nails change as well, becoming yellow o Facial structure also changes due to bone loss in the skull and cartilage structure changes o Loss of enamel on teeth, stain accumulation, loss of teeth o Sun exposure causes photo-aging Effects visible under UV light Hair o Graying Pigmented hairs replaced by non-pigmented hairs due to slowing or stopping of melanin production o Thinning Occurs in both sexes Results from destruction of germination centers Most common form is androgenetic alopecia (male/female pattern baldness) ▯ Body Build (exercise can offset trends) Height o Decreases across adulthood, more for women o Due to loss of bone material in the vertebrae Weight o Fat-free mass decreases o BMI increases o Weight declines due to loss of bone/muscle (after 50’s) Types of recommended exercise o Endurance, Resistance, Flexibility o Low intensity ▯ Mobility Muscles, bones, ligaments change over time (40’s) Muscle endurance and eccentric strength maintained while speed declines Muscles o Declines 12-15% per decade o Sarcopenia – progressive age-related loss of muscle tissue Strength training useful to counteract o Increased risks of falling, reduced life quality Bones o Loss of bone mineral content o Bone remodeling – old cells destroyed and replaced by new cells o Porosity of calcium matrix – lose calcium o Estrogen and testosterone influence bone remodeling o Genetic factors, muscle mass, gender, race influence rate of bone loss o Not until 60’s usually Joints o Starts as early as 20’s, affect women more than men o Loss of articular cartilage o Strength and flexibility training can help protect joints o Stress and repeated use exacerbates joint degeneration ▯ Vital Bodily Functions – Methods for prevention/compensation Cardiovascular System o Aging of arteries and ventricles, accumulation of plaque o Decrease in aerobic capacity and cardiac output o Avoid or quit smoking o Exercise to maintain aerobic capacity, counteract stiffness of arteries, and improve lipid metabolism Respiratory System o Brings O2 in body, moves CO2 out o Decrease in expiratory volume o Lung age o Avoid/quit smoking o Regulate body weight o Exercise to strengthen chest wall Urinary System o Avoid/quit smoking o Monitor medication doses o Behavioral methods or medications to treat incontinence and overactive bladder o Aging also affects elasticity of bladder o Men – enlargement of the prostate o Urinary incontinence not solely an age-related consequence o Slower excretion rate Digestive System o Changes relatively minor in esophagus, stomach, and lower digestive tract and reflect overall health status o Fecal incontinence affects 4% of 65+ Can be controlled w/ behavior controls and diet o Lifestyle factors play important role o Decreases in saliva production, possible slowing of digestion o Decrease in liver volume and blood flow in liver o Smoking status and medications affect digestive functioning ▯ Missed One Class* ▯ Monday 2/22 – ▯ - Everyday problems test poor performance related to slower RT ▯ Postformal operations How adults structure their thinking past adolescence Judging when to use formal logic and when to rely on simpler methods ▯ Dialectical Thinking Understanding is negotiated give and take Interest in engaging in dialects Truth isn’t necessarily set in stone ▯ Intelligence PMAT – 7 primary mental abilities o Verbal meaning, word fluency, numerical ability, spatial relations, memory, perceptual speed, general reasoning Class aging pattern – idea that intelligence llooks like inverted U- shape, peaks in early adulthood followed by steady decline Theoretical perspectives on adult intelligence o “g” or general factor (spearman, 1904) o fluid-crystallized theory (horn & cattell, 1966) o Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence ▯ Review Age-related vision changes o Corrective lenses by 50’s 60’s, presbyopia + cause, loss of visual acuity (ability to see details at a distance), Older adults more sensitive to glare which is why it’s harder to drive at night. Paralinguistic elements of speech o Gestures and facial expressions, aid in comprehension o Compensate for changes in language abilities, processing speed or hearing Methods to improve joint functioning o Effect women more than men o Stress and repeated used cause joint to deteriorate more rapidly o Strength training to build muscles that support joints w/o strain on joints themselves o Flexibility training to expand joints range of motion Neuropsychological Assessment o Gathering info about clients cog function from series of cog tests o One on one, no family member help o Adapt assessment to clients age and symptoms o Use flexible battery Types of dementia or Major Neurocognitive Disorder (5) o Alzheimers – individual suffers progressive/irreversible neuronal death, evolve gradually over time, memory shows most significant change, may also be personality or behavior changes, eventually lose ability to perform everyday tasks Survival time – 7-10 years o Vascular dementia – progressively loses cog function due to damage to arteries supplying brain Development more rapid, related to CVD risk factors o Frontal temporal dementia – deterioration of frontal and temporal lobes, personality changes or changes in language abilities (depends on area of atrophy) o Parkinsons Disease Dementia – defecits in processing speed, attention and executive function Hallucinations later on o Neurocognitive disorder w/ LB – episodes of confusion and hallucinations (earlier), cognition fluctuates throughout day, REM sleep behavior disorders Incidence rates, symptoms, treatment of diabetes and heart disease Erikson’s stages (late adulthood) ▯ ▯ ▯
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