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Psychology 312 Week Two Notes

by: Kristen Sturgeon

Psychology 312 Week Two Notes 312

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Psychlogy > 312 > Psychology 312 Week Two Notes
Kristen Sturgeon
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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About this Document

These are the notes from our second class meeting, January 21, 2016. They finish off notes from "A Brief History of Psychological Theories" and go through to where we stopped in "Social Transitions"
Adolescent Psychology
Valenne MacGyvers
Class Notes
Psychology, MacGyvers, adolescence
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Sturgeon on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 312 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Valenne MacGyvers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
WEEK TWO JANUARY 21, 2016 A Brief Review of Psychological Theories Continues Learning Theories Continued Social Learning Theories  Observational Learning o Imitating models whose behaviors are rewarded o Vicarious learning  Self­Efficacy o The perceived probability of success  Albert Bandura Sociological Theories Adolescent Marginality  Kurt Lewin  Second Class Citizens  Apart from the majority  Created by Societal restrictions and/or family traditions/resources Intergenerational Conflict  James Coleman  Adolescents have their own culture o With its own values, styles, attitudes, and beliefs  Speed of cultural trends accelerated post­industrial revolution Historical or Anthropological Theories Inventionists  Adolescence is a cultural/historical invention that does not correspond to a real  developmental stage  We create developmental systems to suit ourselves 1 | P a g e WEEK TWO JANUARY 21, 2016 Anthropological Perspectives  Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead  Each culture defines their own developmental periods  Transitions from one status to another may or may not be clear or distinctive o Continuous or discontinuous You, too, are weird! Personal experience may not be typical Science seeks to understand the typical or common response Not all individuals conform to the common pattern of development This doesn’t invalidate the common response Some individuals are weird!  All of us are a bit weird! Beware! The power of expectations Humans will rise (or fall) to the level of expectations we have for them Parents expecting problems, will get them. Teachers expecting poor learning, will get it. Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968, Pygmalion in the classroom 2 | P a g e WEEK TWO JANUARY 21, 2016 Social Transitions The Invention of Adolescence G. Stanley Hall (1904) Adolescence   It’s psychology and its relations to psychology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime,  religion, and education This work is generally considered to mark the beginning of the adolescence as an area of  scientific and scholarly research Hall defined adolescence as ages 14 to 24  He emphasizes the role of puberty in the onset of adolescence, and believed in a  biological imperative Social Redefinition: An Overview In all societies, there is a shift in perception  Adolescence is a period of social transition  The individual comes to be recognized as an adult o Previously the legal STATUS is a minor (Hence status offenses and statutory  rape) o Age of majority varies but 21 for most legalities.   Driving and working, 15­16  Voting and smoking, 18 etc. o Minority Status limits economic rights regarding property ownership, contracts,  employment, income and taxes Adolescence as a Social Invention Inventionists stress that because we perceive adolescence as distinct, it exists as a distinct period  of the lifespan  Relative to other cultures and historical periods  Problems experiences during adolescence may be due to society’s definition of  adolescence, not cognitive or biological changes  Emphasis is on societal constraints  What are those constraints? 3 | P a g e WEEK TWO JANUARY 21, 2016  How might the secular trend in puberty play a role? Roots in the Industrial Revolution and a changing economy  Shift in the perception of children from commodities to legacies  Need for people to provide for their families in a changed economy Young people excluded from labor force  Economic dependence on elders  Formal schooling is lengthened New terminology  Teenager, youth Major Changes Society Expects Two­sided alternation in status  Increasing privileges  Increasing responsibility o Self­direction o Personal accountability Society is less clear about when these responsibilities are to be assumed than when privileges are available (Clarity). The Process of Social Redefinition In contemporary America  Generally begins at age 15 or 16 o May own their income (not parents money) o May own property o May be licensed to drive a car o May be employed in the community  Age 18, can vote, serve in the military, drink beer, purchase cigarettes, enter contracts  (apartment leases)  Age 21, gamble, drink, join a union, etc. 4 | P a g e WEEK TWO JANUARY 21, 2016  Age 25, rent cars; get reasonable insurance  Extended period of parental dependency Timetable is affected by economics, politics, and culture (ACA) Emerging Adulthood Jeffrey Arnett’s term for ages 18­25 caught between adolescence and adulthood, characterized  by:  Exploring possible identities before making enduring choices  Unstable work, romantic relationships, and living situations  Focus on oneself and independent functioning   Subjective feeling of being caught between adolescence and adulthood  Subjective feeling that life holds many possibilities See Osgood’s research pg. 91­92 Maybe a good phenomenon of affluent Western Society Emerging Adults (22­27 year olds at the millennium) Fast starters: Married, many looking to become partners, to become home owners and in long  term jobs (12%) Parents without careers: Married, most likely to become parents, living on their own, but  unemployed or underemployed (10%) Educated partners: Married or cohabitating with partners, not wanting children, living on their  own, but mostly renting, trying to launch a career (19%) Educated singles: Single or dating, but uncommitted, not wanting children, mostly still at home  and trying to launch a career (37%) Working singles: Single or dating, but uncommitted not wanting children, mostly still at home  and in long term jobs (7%) Slow starters: Single or dating, but uncommitted, not wanting children, mostly still at home, and  unemployed or underemployed (14%) The Process of Social Redefinition Some societies mark social redefinition of the young person with a dramatic and elaborate  imitation ceremony called a rite of passage 5 | P a g e WEEK TWO JANUARY 21, 2016  Navajo: Kimalda  Bar Mitzvah; Bat Mitzvah This usually marks the beginning or end of a long period of training Social Redefinition: Three major components Extrusion  Real or symbolic separation from parents o Fostering out o Going away to school Brother­sister avoidance  Separation of males and females at puberty o Not sharing rooms or baths Passing on of cultural, historical, and practical info  From the adult generation to the newly inducted cohort of young people Social Transitions: The Importance of Clarity Lewin’s “Marginal Man”   If society is unclear, cohorts crate their own rules Contemporary trends in status:   Less emphasis on attaining a specific role and more emphasis on self­reliance  Decline in importance of family roles  Similar criteria for males and females, fewer gender­typed role expectations Clarity in Industrialized Societies Given the absence of clarity  People of the same chronological age may feel more mature or less than agemates  Lack of clear markers to communicate the transition Clarity in Traditional Cultures Social redefinition is clearly recognized 6 | P a g e WEEK TWO JANUARY 21, 2016 Formal imitation ceremony  Boys: Timing of ceremony varies, Girls: Timing usually linked to menarche  Physical appearance is often changed (clothing, circumcision, scarification) Adults clearly differentiated from children Clarity in Previous Eras Baby boom generations (1950­1960s)  “Fast Starters” th Transitions in the early 19  century was more disorderly and prolonged (like today)  School, work, timetable depended on household/family needs 7 | P a g e


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