Psychology on Aging: week 4 notes
Psychology on Aging: week 4 notes Psy 215
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jocelyn Casker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 215 at La Salle University taught by Mr. Vince Tarducci in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Aging: Psychology Issues in Psychlogy at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Attention and Memory Harry Lorayne – Ageless memory o Studied memory and performed memory tricks in shows in Vegas o Has numerous strategies to remember details such as thousands of names and specific facts Stereotypical view o We believe that the Elderly forget and that the youth do not o Younger adults can make the exact same mistakes as without consequence because society won’t shame them for it o Is a very incorrect view on aging and memory Task related Differences o Depends on the type of mistake and the context in which it happened o Context is CRUCIAL could anything in the environment be influencing them to be making this mistake? Did they have a busy day/ have a busy lifestyle? Do they frequently forget to turn the stove off or complete a task? Information Processing and Attention Theory: theory that explains how we process new information and how we hold onto it o The IPT model has 3 main assumptions: 1. People are actively involved in the process of taking in information 2. IPT looks at the quantity (how much information) and the quality (what kind of information) of the information coming in 3. Information is processed through stages (Sensory, short term, and long term) o Sensory Memory: All the information that comes in whenever we are performing a task Has an unlimited capacity Has a duration of ½ - 2 seconds o Short Term Memory (STM): includes everything that we’re aware of; is also called working memory and it allows us to manipulate information as it comes in. We can forget information that is meaningless to us or if we simply don’t need it This clears up space in our STM to store more information Has a capacity of 5-9 chunks of information at a time The duration is typically 18-30 seconds o Long Term Memory (LTM): Information from STM that we store so we never forget it (unlimited capacity and duration). Reasons why we may not be able to recall LTM: 1. We didn’t use it frequently enough 2. There was a loss of neural connections in the brain 3. We never truly stored in our LTM o Retrieval the ability to bring important information back from LTM to STM o Maintenance rehearsal constant repetition to commit something to memory and it stays within your STM. EX: studying flashcards or memorizing a phone number o Elaborative rehearsal making a connection with something you want to remember and committing it to LTM o Selective Attention: any sensory information that we don’t care about is processed out. If we decide we need it, we pick up on the details. This ability diminishes with age because they’re unable to sort out the unneeded information from what is needed o Speed of Processing: speed from when information is brought in by the senses to being stored in LTM. This theory isn’t supported well because there is no context for the task at hand If you give someone a new stimuli, it will always take longer to process it/learn it Inhibitory loss strategies to not be distracted while taking in information Attentional Changes older adults are not worse at dividing attention but when the situation becomes complex, the have more difficulty focusing on it o Automatic Processing: minimal demand on attentional capacity; this does not demonstrate any age differences between young and old Ex: doing laundry requires little to no attention. You can go through the motions of washing and folding while doing other things o Effortful Processing: requires all available attentional capacity and has many age discrepancies Ex: Learning in a school system requires a lot of cognitive processing that elderly people cannot handle. Driving in bad condition forces you to focus on all aspects of driving which is typically too much for the elderly o Encoding: taking in information from sensory (outside the body) and putting into short-term memory Is disrupted with age because selective attention declines o Storage: Taking information from short term memory and putting it into long term o Retrieval: Removing information from long term memory so you can remember in the moment. We begin to struggle with this because: We have weak neural connections (possibly due to dementia) “Use it or Lose it”; we didn’t use the information enough so we forgot it o Working Memory Manipulates specific memories and is your ability to hold information in your mind (EX: only asking for a price once and you remember it) This allows you to: 1. Solve a problem 2. Make a decision 3. Learn new Information When you need to take in more information in your working memory, you essentially rip out the used page and start with a blank page o Implicit Memory Retrieval of Information without intentional recollection (EX: brushing teeth) Allows you to accomplish a task with minimal effort o Explicit Memory Intentional and conscious remembering of information that is learned at a certain time (EX: remembering you most recent vacation) o Long Term Memory Semantic Memory: general knowledge and facts (EX: knowing math problems or significant dates) Episodic Memory: a specific memory that you were a part of (EX: involves the phrase “I remember when…” Procedural Memory: Knowledge of how to do something and you typically won’t forget it (EX: writing or typing) ALL of these forms of memory begin decline in the 60’s except procedural (which eventually you may just physically be incapable of doing it) o Tip of tongue experience Unable to remember a word/name Problem increases with age EX: forgetting why you walked into a room o Recall: no prompts or cue; older adults typically struggle with this (EX: tests with essays or are open-ended) o Recognition: choosing from an item based off of what you recognize (EX: tests with multiple choice) o Perspective Memory: remembering what you have to do in the future so older adults compensate by taking more notes or making lists o Event-based task: performing an action to help you remember (EX: pill box/alarm to take medication) o Time Based task: Performing an action at a fixed time (EX: scheduling doctor’s appointment) o Autobiographical memory: remembering information and events from you own personal life. Is a form of episodic memory Memories are mostly from childhood because as we age, we are consumed with life tasks that distract us After the age of 30, we generalize our memories o Flashbulb Memory: emotionally driven events which we tend to remember best EX: our wedding or birth of child Typically NOT accurate over time because you struggle to remember exact details because you were so emotionally charged o Source Memory: ability to remember where you got information and remembering if you performed an action (older adults tend to struggle to remember where they heard things so they repeat themselves) o False Memory: remembering events that didn’t occur (whether they were actually dreams or you lied about a story and convinced yourself it was real) Semantic Memory in Service of Episodic memory o The more we come into contact with certain information and events, the better we will remember it o When this occurs, our neural pathways are strengthened and making our brain healthier Negative Stereotypes and memory performance o The elderly believe that as they age, their memory is supposed to fade so they actually buy into the belief and their memory begins to fade as a result Metamemory: thinking about our memories and how it works E-I-E-I-O Strategy o Categorizes different memory aids External aids found within the environment (notebooks, calendars, phones) Internal aids rely on mental processes (logic, mnemonics) Explicit aids are direct and help you in that moment Implicit aids help you indirectly Explicit – External Pill-box, alarm notifications, a notebook Implicit – External Color-coded hallways for the memory impaired (traditionally found in hospital or permanent living assistance) Explicit – Internal Hard work; imaging where you parked your car Implicit – Internal Based on spaced retrieval gradually increasing the time between retrieval attempts
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