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Intro into Sociology; Chapter 6 Notes

by: Taylor O'Toole

Intro into Sociology; Chapter 6 Notes SOC1010-002

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Sociology > SOC1010-002 > Intro into Sociology Chapter 6 Notes
Taylor O'Toole
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About this Document

These notes will cover Chapter 6 from our books and a what Sherry Covered in class.
Introductory Sociology
Mark Sherry
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor O'Toole on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC1010-002 at University of Toledo taught by Mark Sherry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
Chapter 6 Key Terms: Ingroup ­ a group to which a person belongs and which the person feels a sense of  identity Outgroup ­ a group to which a person does not belong and toward which person may  feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility Reference group ­ a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social  attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member Instrumental leadership ­ goal or task oriented leadership Expressive leadership ­ leadership that provides emotional support for members of the  group Authoritarian leadership ­ leaders who make all major group decisions and assign tasks  to members Democratic leadership ­ leaders who encourage group discussion and decisions making  through consensus Laissez­faire leadership ­ leaders who are only minimally involved in decision making  and who encourage group members to make their own decisions Bureaucracy ­ an organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority Rationality ­ the process by which traditional methods of social organization,  characterized by informality and spontaneity  Ideal type ­ an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some  phenomenon Iron law of oligarchy ­ according to Robert Michels, the tendency of bureaucracies to be  ruled by a few people Key Ideas: Milgram’s Research ­ An experiment that tests if people will continue to harm someone  because some of higher ‘authority’ says so ­ People will deliver a memory test, it testie got an answer wrong  the volunteer will deliver a shock to the test taker, ­ The shocks will go up in voltage Ethics ­ Tobacco Control Experiment is an example of something that is  unethical ­ If the experiment causes harm to anyone and you do not move to  stop it, it is unethical Max Weber ­ First researcher to really focus on bureaucracy ­ Thought he created the perfect bureaucracy Characteristics of Bureaucracy ­ Hierarchy of authority ­ Clear division of labor ­ Explicit rules and procedures ­ Impersonality Groupthink ­ Something you think is not a good idea but you are going to go  with the group because you do not want to be outcasted Solomon Asch ­ Group Conformity ­ Uses line experiment ­ Group says an answer that is wrong and the person says the  same answer because they want to go with the group Normative Organization ­ A group that someone join to pursue some common interest or  gain personal satisfaction or prestige from being a member. ­ Political parties, ecological activist group , etc. Coercive Organization ­ A group you do not voluntarily become a member ­ Boot camps, prisons, etc. Utilitarian Organization ­ A group you voluntarily join when they can provide us with a  material reward that we seek ­ To make a living or earn a degree Problems with Bureaucracies  ­ Inefficiency and rigidity  ­ Resistance to change ­ Race, gender, and class inequalities


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