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Intro into Sociology; Chapter 7

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by: Taylor O'Toole

Intro into Sociology; Chapter 7 SOC1010-002

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Sociology > SOC1010-002 > Intro into Sociology Chapter 7
Taylor O'Toole
GPA 3.5

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Chapter 7 and powerpoint notes
Introductory Sociology
Mark Sherry
Class Notes
25 ?




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"Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class"
Mr. Beryl Ortiz

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor O'Toole on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC1010-002 at University of Toledo taught by Mark Sherry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Toledo.

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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class

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Date Created: 02/25/16
Chapter 7 Key Terms: Deviance ­ any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the  society or group in which it occurs Crime ­ behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or  other negative sanctions Social Control ­ systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage  conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance Strain Theory ­ the proposition that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural  goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally  approved means of achieving those goals Illegitimate Opportunity Structures ­ circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate  channels Differential Association Theory ­ the proposition that people have a greater tendency to  deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who are more  favorable toward deviance than conformity Rational Choice Theory ­ the proposition that deviant behavior occurs when a person  weighs the costs and benefits of nonconventional or criminal behavior and determines  that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved Social Bond Theory ­ the proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases  when a person’s ties to society are weakened or broken Labeling Theory ­ the proposition that deviance is socially constructed process in which  social control agencies designate certain people as deviance  and they come to accept  that label and act accordingly Primary Deviance ­ initial act of rule breaking Secondary Deviance ­ process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a  deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior Tertiary Deviance ­ deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant Opportunity Theory ­ offenders make rational choices and thus choose a target with  higher rewards and lower risk or effort  Differential Reinforcement Theory ­ a process in which people experience and anticipate consequences of their behaviors Racial Profiling ­ when the law enforcement officials target certain people based on their  race or ethnicity  Community­Oriented Policing ­ promotes organizational strategies, which support the  systematic use of partnerships and problem solving techniques, to proactively address  the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues, such as crime, social  disorder, and fear of crime Key Ideas: Crime Classifications ­ Violent Crimes = actions involving force or threat of force against  others ­ Property Crimes = burglary, motor vehicle theft, larceny­theft, and  arson ­ Victimless Crime = crimes involving a willing exchange of illegal  goods or services among adults ­ White­Collar Crime = illegal activities by people in the course of  their employment or financial affairs ­ Corporate Crime = illegal acts committed by corporate employed  on behalf of the corporation and with its support ­ Internet Crime = illegal acts committed by criminals on the internet ­ Organized Crime = a business operation that supplies illegal  goods and services for profit ­ Political Crime = illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation  of power by government officials or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the  government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the  government, or overthrow it Uniform Crime Report and National Crime Victimization Survey ­ Source of crime statistics ­ National Crime Victimization Survey has higher numbers because  some people do not report what happens Differences regarding race, class, gender, and age ­ Some people will get a harder punishment because of their race,  class, gender, or age. Functionalist Theories on Deviance ­ Durkheim ­ believed that deviance is rooted in societal factors such as rapid  social change and lack of social integration among people Symbolic Interactionist Theories on Deviance ­ Focus on social processes ­ people develop a self­concept and learn conforming behavior  through socialization Conflict Theories on Deviance ­ Different Branches have different views ­ Power Relations ­ lifestyles considered deviant by political and  economic elites are often defined as illegal ­ Capitalism ­ Marxism/critical theory ­ views defiance and crime as a function of the  capitalist economic system ­ Feminist ­ Male theories on deviance can not explain female  behavior


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