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February 23rd and 25th Notes

by: Lorena Roberts

February 23rd and 25th Notes Psych 360

Lorena Roberts
GPA 3.5

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Here are the notes from in-class this week!
Social Psych
Dr. Lowell Gaertner
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorena Roberts on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 360 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Lowell Gaertner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Social Psych in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
Attraction   1   23 February 2016 Attraction I. Factors Affecting Attraction:  a. Familiarity  b. Mere exposure: when we’re exposed to something new and we don’t have a negative attitude  towards it, repeated exposure leads to increased favorable attitudes towards it; initially neutral  the more we like it; this happens for people and novel objects  A. Familiarity or Mere Exposure E.g., Zajonc (1968): Participants see different bogus words; variance comes from how many times people are exposed to given words; this means some are repeated more than others; afterwards, you’re told to infer  the meaning of the word; found that the words that the participants were exposed to more  frequently were said to have a positive meaning E.g. Saegert, Swap, & Zajonc (1973): Participants are told that the researchers are testing taste; lots of rooms, lots of people, tasting  different drinks; participants pass some people more times than others; rate how much they like  the other people at the end; therefore, the more you’re exposed to some people, the more you like them  *Classical conditioning: when we are exposed to something novel, the absence of something bad is the  unconditioned stimulus; when nothing bad happens, we feel calm; the more familiar we become with someone,  the more we like them  B. Proximity:  we like people that we’re closer to in space than those we’re more distant from; in order to form a  relationship with somebody, you have to have contact with someone; liking and disliking comes from  knowing someone even exists to begin with; if you’re to keep seeing and being around some person, you’re  more likely to like them  E.g., Festinger, Schacter, & Back (1950) MIT Housing:  Married student housing; randomly assigned to apartments; asked to write down “friends”; the  majority of the friends written down lived in close proximity; people who live in high traffic  areas were listed by more people as a friend than people who live in low traffic areas C. Similarity:  research suggests that we like similar others; people who share our attitudes; people who are  attitudinally similar  we like them more  C.1. Attitudinal Similarity and Attraction E.g. Newcomb (1961): Free housing if they agreed to be in the studies; could not know anyone else in the house; they  fill out attitudes towards different things at the beginning of the semester; those who were more  attitudinally similar were more likely to be friends; what we don’t know about this is the  causality  Attraction   2   E.g., Donald Byrne:  You’re told that you’re going to interact with the other participant; first, fill out your attitudes  towards a number of issues; experimenter comes back and gives you the other person’s attitudes; this is manipulated; they’re asked to fill out a rating of how they think the other person is; what  the find is a positive linear relationship between attraction and similarity; bogus­other paradigm  C.2. Similarity to Actual vs. Ideal self? E.g., LaPrelle, Hoyle, Insko, & Bernthal, (1990)   rate actual self, ideal self, liked peers, and not liked peers on trait scales We are threatened by but also admire those who are what we want to become.  Self­esteem doesn’t seem to play a role in this.  D. Physical Attractiveness E.g., Walster, Aronson, Abrams, & Rottman (1966) “computer dance”  College students were randomly assigned a partner to go to a dance together; when you get there, you fill out lots  of measures and rate how physically attractive the other person is; half way through the dance they must rate how  attracted they are to the other person; this is driven more by physical attractiveness than anything else  D.1. Why? The attractive stereotype:  we assume that physically attractive people are good people;  \.2. Why? Basking In Reflected Beauty E.g., Kernis & Wheeler (1981):  Participants are seated in a waiting room; two people come in and are seated; one of those people (peer)  and the other (target); same sex people; rated whether the peer was attractive looking or not; manipulate  whether or not the two people appear to be friends;  D.3. Why? Cue to Reproductive Fitness


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