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BIOL 2510 notes week of 2.22.16

by: Laura Nall

BIOL 2510 notes week of 2.22.16 BIOL 2510 - 012

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 2510 - 012 > BIOL 2510 notes week of 2 22 16
Laura Nall
GPA 3.8

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This is the second part of the notes that will be covered on exam two.
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Jeffrey Goessling
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Nall on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2510 - 012 at Auburn University taught by Jeffrey Goessling in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/25/16
o Regulation of gastric secretion   Three sites of stimuli. Inhibit or enhance secretion  Cephalic phase: before food enters stomach o Smell, taste, site, thought of food o Vagus nerve stimulates stomach  Gastric phase: 3­4 hours, food in stomach o Stimulation   Stretch receptors   Chemical changes cause G cells to release gastrin  Partially digested proteins, caffeine,  increased pH o Inhibition   Low pH inhibits gastrin secretion  Empty stomach, stress adrenal responses  Intestinal phase: food entering duodenum o Stimulation (brief!)  Influx of chyme triggers intestinal gastrin release o Inhibition  Distension, acidic, fatty, or hypertonic conditions  Liver o Largest gland in body o Filtration system for digestive system o Functions  Produces bile for fat digestion  Bile salts – emulsify fats  Lecithin – phospholipids that also emulsify fats  Filters blood  Hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein  sinusoids  hepatic vein   inferior vena cava  right atrium  Gallbladder o Functions: stores and concentrates bile o Empties from:  Gallbladder  cystic duct  common bile duct  duodenum  Pancreas o Function: produces digestive enzymes for fats, carbs, and proteins o Pancreatic juice empties into duodenum via main pancreatic duct o 2 cell types  1. Islets of Langerhans – endocrine cells, produce and releases hormone  a cells (alpha cells) – glucagon (breakdown glycogen to make  glucose) o increases plasma glucose levels  B cells (beta cells) – insulin (signals glucose uptake by cells) o Decreases plasma glucose levels  2. Acinar cells – exocrine cells, produce enzymes and produce/store  inactive enzymes (zymogens)  Inactive enzymes: o Trypsinogen o Chymotrypsinogen o Procarboxypeptidase  Other enzymes: o Pancreatic amylase – carbohydrate; starch, oligosaccharides to disaccharides o Pancreatic lipase – lipid; triglycerides to monoglycerides  and fatty acids o Regulation of bile and pancreatic secretion – by secretin and CCK  Secreten  Secreted when chyme enters duodenum  Stimulates o Secretion of bile from liver cells o Secretion of pancreatic juice from pancreatic acinar cells  Cholecystokinin (CCK)  Secreted when chyme enters duodenum  Stimulates o Contraction of gall bladder – secretes bile into bile duct o Secretion of pancreatic juice from pancreatic acinar cells o Relaxation of hepatopancreatic sphincter so pancreatic  juice and bile can enter duodenum  Small intestines – gross anatomy o Major functions: complete digestion and absorption of nutrients o ~20 t long with 3 divisions:  Duodenum – receives chyme from stomach, pancreatic juice, and bile  ~10 inches  Most absorption  Jejunum – middle portion  ~8 feet long  Ileum – last region of small intestine, joins large intestine at ileocecal  valve (sphincter)  ~12 feet long  Small intestines – micro anatomy o Adaptations to increase surface area for nutrient absorption  Circular folds – deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that slow  movement of chyme  Villi – finger­like projections of mucosa, its epithelial cells are absorptive  cells  Crypts of lieberkuhn (aka intestinal crypts) o Tubular glands between villi o Epithelial cells are secretory cells – secrete intestinal juice  (water, mucus, rush border enzymes) o Enteroendocrine cells secrete CCK and secretin  Microvilli – tiny bristle­like projections of absorptive cells  “brush border”  Small intestines – absorption  o Carbohydrate absorption  Apical side – cotransport with Na+  Basolateral side – facilitated diffusion Fat emulsification and absorption 1. Bile salts and lecithin in duodenum break up (emulsify) fat globules into small droplets 2. Lipase breaks fats into monoglycerides and fatty acids 3. Bile salts and lecithin surround monoglycerides and fatty acids creating micelles 4. At apical surface of epithelial cells, lipid substances move into cells by diffusion 5. In epithelial cells converted back into fat (triglycerides) and combined with cholesterol,  phospholipids creating chylomicrons 6. Chylomicrons transported to lymphatic capillaries via exocytosis  Large intestines  o From ileocecal valve to anus o Major functions:  Water absorption by osmosis  Feces production o Subdivisions  Cecum – sac­like first portion below ileocecal valve  Appendix – mass of lymphoid tissue that extends from cecum  Colon – 4 regions o Ascending – up right side o Transverse – across abdomen o Descending – down left side o Sigmoid – s­shaped where enters pelvic and joins rectum  Rectum  Anal canal – 2 sphincters with skeletal and smooth muscle o Gut microbiome – commensal bacteria in large intestines  Functions:   Synthesize B & K vitamins  Ferment undigested carbohydrates (yields gas)  Keeps pathogenic microbes in check  Interacts with immune system  Affected by diet  Prebiotics – food for good bacteria  Probiotics – the good bacteria Question: Which structure of the small intestines are tiny projections that give the mucosal  surface a “silky” feeling?  Microvilli  The absorption of carbohydrates and amino acids utilizes a _________ co­transport system.  Sodium (Na) Chylomicrons are directly absorbed into blood (T/F).  False they are absorbed into lacteles  Amino acids are directly absorbed into blood (T/F).  True  Conditions and diseases of the digestive tract  Hepatitis – inflammation of liver o Types A­F  40% of cases in U.S. are Hepatitis B (exchanged through needles)  32% cases are Hepatitis A  Type C is the most common o Causes  Mostly viruses  Toxins (alcohol and medications) o Fibrosis (scarring) o Cirrhosis – chronic inflammation  Gastric ulcers o Erosion of stomach wall o Cause: Helicobacter pylori o Treatment: antibiotics  Heartburn o Gastroesophageal reflux disease (heartburn)  Causes: acidic gastric juice to go up esophagus due to   Excessive eating, drinking  Pregnancy  Hiatal hernia – part of stomach bulges through the hiatus above  diaphragm  Why doesn’t acidic juice affect stomach lining?  Gastric mucosal surface  Gallbladder conditions o Gallstones  Low bile results in cholesterol crystallizing in gallbladder  Crystals can block cystic duct o Jaundice  Accumulation of yellow bile pigments in blood  Can be due to bile duct blockage o Diarrhea  Too fast digestion  Too much water o Constipation  Too slow digestion  Not enough water Chapter 24 – Digestive system part II Nutrition and metabolism 1. Nutrients – substances in foods the body needs for growth, maintenance, repair 2. Energy of food measured in kilocalories (kcal) – amount of heat energy needed to raise  the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree C 3. Metabolism – chemical reactions occurring in the cells a. Anabolism – reactions whereby smaller molecules assembled into larger  molecules or structures b. Catabolism – processes that break down complex structures into simpler ones Nutrients   3 macro: o Carbohydrate o Lipid o Protein   2 micro: o Vitamins – organic molecules  Function as coenzymes  Most dietary  D made in skin  B and K synth by intestinal bacteria  A converted from beta­carotine o Minerals – structure (e.g. bone) and ion balance (e.g. action potentials)  Ca, P, K, Su, Na, Cl, Mg Carbohydrate metabolism  Digestion: poly­, oligo­, disaccharides  monosaccharides (all converted to glucose in  liver)  Glucose enters cells by facilitated diffusion  Fate in fed state: o ATP production (cellular respiration) o Glycogenesis – glucose combined to form glycogen  Most glycogen produced and stored ni liver and skeletal muscle o Lipogenesis – formation of triglycerides  Glucose used to form triglycerides and stored in adipose tissue ATP synthesis  Aerobic pathway – net product is 32 ATP o Steps:  Step 1: glycolysis  Step 2: Krebs cycle   Step 3: oxidative phosphorylation  o Pros:  Yields lots ATP for each glucose  Provides energy for hours of activity! o Cons:  Slow process  Needs oxygen o C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O  gives off 32 ATP Step 1: Glycolysis  Occurs in cytosol  Is an anaerobic process  Steps: o Glucose phosphorylated to glucose­6­phosphate then converted to fructose­1,6­ biphosphate (ATP requiring processes) o Fructose­1,6­biphosphate cleaved into two 3­carbon fragments o 3­carbon fragments oxidized (give up H+) o NAD+ is reduced (picks up the H+) forming NADH  NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a coenzyme – activate  enzymes and serve as hydrogen (or electron) acceptors o ATP formed by substrate­level phosphorylation – P from 3­carbon fragments  added to ADP  END PRODUCTS: 4 ATP (NET = 2), 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvic acid Step 2: Krebs cycle  Occurs in mitochondria st  Pyruvic acid 1  converted into acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)  Acetyl CoA enters Krebs cycle  Krebs cycle: o Carbons removed from acetyl CoA (& subsequent substrates)  o Acetyl CoA (& subsequent substrates) oxidized o NAD+ & FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide; another coenzyme) reduced forming  NADH & FADH2 o 1 molecule of ATP formed by substrate level phosphorylation for each “turn” of  cycle  END PRODUCTS (per ONE pyruvic acid molecule): 3CO2, 1 FADH2, 4 NADH, 1 ATP  How many ATP produced for each glucose molecule? 2 ATP Step 3: oxidative phosphorylation  Via electron transport chain at the inner mitochondrial membrane  FADH2 and NADH give up H atoms to enzyme complexes within membrane  H atoms split into proton and electron o Electrons get passed down successive complexes, combine with O­ to form H2O o Protons pumped into inter­membrane space  H+ travel through ATP synthase providing energy for P to be attached to ADP  END PRODUCTS: 28 ATP and H2O


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