KIN 461 Week 6 Notes
KIN 461 Week 6 Notes KIN 461-401
Popular in Principles of Motor Learning
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Kinesiology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tanski Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 461-401 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Dr. Peterson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Principles of Motor Learning in Kinesiology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
Reviews for KIN 461 Week 6 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/25/16
Week 6 Notes Tanski 1 Processing Information and Making Decisions Time is often a critical component Simplest model of information processing approach Three stages of information processing o Stimulus identification Perception e.g., where do less experienced performers fixate o Response selection Decision is made o Response programming: motor system is organized to produce desired movement “Retrieval” of motor program it has organized a plan and timeline of action and determined the force Ex: basketball game pass Reaction time (RT) : The amount of time that passes from the presentation of a stimulus until the beginning of a person’s response, when the movement is initiated o Used to estimate the speed of processing o Simple reaction time: shortest reaction time one stimulus and one response Not realistic for most motor control situations, but a good starting point to examine speed of processing o Factors that influence RT Number of possible stimuli Choice reaction time Practice Response compatibility Choice reaction time: the interval of time between the presentation of one of several stimuli and the beginning of one of several responses o Hick’s Law : as number of stimulusresponse pairs increases, choice RT increases in a linear fashion Week 6 Notes Tanski 2 Stable relationship between the number of SR pair options and choice RT KNOW THIS GRAPH (demonstrates Hick’s Law) Effect of practice on RT o More practice = shorter RT o Practice keeps reaction time from increasing, even when stimulusresponse alternatives increase. o Skills often become automatic Stimulus Response Compatibility o The degree to which the relationship between a stimulus and an associated response is natural. o The more “natural” the relationship between the stimuli and associated response, the quicker the RT o Compatible – more rapid information processing in the response section stage Decision Making o Skilled vs. unskilled o Skilled Anticipate better Temporal vs. Spatial – Example: Rowdy Gains Predict earlier Perceived as predictive not reactive Use different cues Examples: o Beginner: looking at the ball, racket o Expert: reading someones eyes or … Quicker choice reaction time Anticipation o Great if correct, can remove RT delay o Costs more if incorrect movement is started o Strategies for preventing anticipation Week 6 Notes Tanski 3 Randomization is the best way to inhibit anticipation Anticipation is best if opponent anticipates incorrectly and pays extra movement cost. Example: snap count in football Anxiety: a person’s interpretation of a particular situation; perception of threat Arousal: the level of excitement of a person’s CNS o Performance is degraded when arousal levels are too low or high. o As arousal increases, performance improves—up to a certain point. Trait Anxiety: a person’s general disposition to perceive situations as threatening. o High trait—person feels some level of threat in most situations o Low trait—person rarely finds situations threatening Example: electrical stimulation of the back of the hand during a task Information processing under high arousal o Perceptual narrowing: tendency for people to miss certain types of information in the environment Detect fewer stimuli Majority of attention is on information most pertinent to task performance Disadvantage: if too narrow, can miss relevant information Cueutilization hypothesis o Helps explain the common performance decrements that occur under conditions of low and high arousal o When arousal low, perceptual field is wide and person has access to large amount of cues Performer may detect irrelevant cues and miss relevant ones Results in suboptimal performance o As arousal increases, attentional focus narrows onto most relevant cues Proficiency improves o Too much arousal = too narrow Miss relevant cues o Optimal level of arousal is one that produces an attentional focus narrow enough to exclude irrelevant cues yet broad enough to detect most important and relevant ones o Panic: hypervigilance found at highest arousal levels Techniques for managing arousal levels o Muscletomind: techniques regulating arousal that use somatic activity (e.g. rhythmic breathing, muscle relaxation) to relax or energize the mind o Mindtomuscle: techniques for regulating arousal that use cognitive activity (e.g. meditation, visualization) to relax or energize the muscles Attention: a limited mental resource, or capacity, to process information o Limited attentional capacity: the notion that attention is limited to at most a few activities at any one time Week 6 Notes Tanski 4 Parallel processing: a type of information processing that allows people to handle two or more streams of information at the same time o Usually occurs during stimulus identification stage o Ex: color and shape of an object can be processed at same time o Stroop effect: competition between the response to color word and the ink in which it is presented Shows that two stimuli can be processed simultaneously When tasks compete with each other = double stimulation paradigm o KNOW THIS GRAPH o Psychological refractory period: Delay in reaction time to the second of two closely spaced stimuli Three Memory Systems o Shortterm sensory store (STSS) o Shortterm memory (STM) o Longterm memory (LTM) Shortterm sensory store o Holds incoming information by modality (e.g. auditory, visual, kinesthetic, tactile) o Very short duration o Very little processing o Almost unlimited in capacity o Very little attentional processing Shortterm memory o Allows people to retrieve, rehearse, process and transfer information from STSSs o Limited in capacity o Brief in duration o Temporary workspace where relevant information is processed o A small amount of information may be held, which uses 7 ± 2 items or chunks o Attention is held in STM as long as it is being rehearsed. Week 6 Notes Tanski 5 Longterm memory o Holds information and considered storage space for life experiences o Unlimited capacity o Unlimited duration o Information arrives as a result of controlled and effortful processing
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'