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KIN 461 Week 6 Notes

by: Tanski Notetaker

KIN 461 Week 6 Notes KIN 461-401

Tanski Notetaker
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Hi everyone! Here are the notes for Week 6 of Motor Learning. I hope you find them helpful!
Principles of Motor Learning
Dr. Peterson
Class Notes
KIN 461 kins Kinesiology week 6 motor learning
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tanski Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 461-401 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Dr. Peterson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Principles of Motor Learning in Kinesiology at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
Week 6 Notes Tanski 1 Processing Information and Making Decisions  Time is often a critical component  Simplest model of information processing approach  Three stages of information processing o Stimulus identification  Perception   e.g., where do less experienced performers fixate o Response selection  Decision is made o Response programming: motor system is organized to produce desired  movement  “Retrieval” of motor program  it has organized a plan and timeline of action and determined the force   Ex: basketball game pass  Reaction time (RT) : The amount of time that passes from the presentation of a stimulus  until the beginning of a person’s response, when the movement is initiated o Used to estimate the speed of processing o Simple reaction time: shortest reaction time  one stimulus and one response  Not realistic for most motor control situations, but a good starting point to  examine speed of processing o Factors that influence RT  Number of possible stimuli  Choice reaction time  Practice  Response compatibility  Choice reaction time: the interval of time between the presentation of one of several  stimuli and the beginning of one of several responses o Hick’s Law : as number of stimulus­response pairs increases, choice RT increases in a linear fashion Week 6 Notes Tanski 2  Stable relationship between the number of S­R pair options and choice RT  KNOW THIS GRAPH (demonstrates Hick’s Law)  Effect of practice on RT o More practice = shorter RT o Practice keeps reaction time from increasing, even when stimulus­response  alternatives increase.  o Skills often become automatic  Stimulus Response Compatibility o The degree to which the relationship between a stimulus and an associated  response is natural.  o The more “natural” the relationship between the stimuli and associated response,  the quicker the RT o Compatible – more rapid information processing in the response section stage  Decision Making o Skilled vs. unskilled o Skilled  Anticipate better  Temporal vs. Spatial – Example: Rowdy Gains  Predict earlier  Perceived as predictive not reactive  Use different cues  Examples:  o Beginner: looking at the ball, racket o Expert: reading someones eyes or …  Quicker choice reaction time  Anticipation o Great if correct, can remove RT delay o Costs more if incorrect movement is started o Strategies for preventing anticipation Week 6 Notes Tanski 3  Randomization is the best way to inhibit anticipation  Anticipation is best if opponent anticipates incorrectly and pays extra  movement cost.  Example: snap count in football  Anxiety: a person’s interpretation of a particular situation; perception of threat  Arousal: the level of excitement of a person’s CNS o Performance is degraded when arousal levels are too low or high. o As arousal increases, performance improves—up to a certain point.  Trait Anxiety: a person’s general disposition to perceive situations as threatening. o High trait—person feels some level of threat in most situations o Low trait—person rarely finds situations threatening  Example: electrical stimulation of the back of the hand during a task  Information processing under high arousal o Perceptual narrowing: tendency for people to miss certain types of information  in the environment  Detect fewer stimuli  Majority of attention is on information most pertinent to task performance  Disadvantage: if too narrow, can miss relevant information  Cue­utilization hypothesis o Helps explain the common performance decrements that occur under conditions  of low and high arousal o When arousal low, perceptual field is wide and person has access to large amount  of cues  Performer may detect irrelevant cues and miss relevant ones  Results in suboptimal performance o As arousal increases, attentional focus narrows onto most relevant cues  Proficiency improves o Too much arousal = too narrow  Miss relevant cues o Optimal level of arousal is one that produces an attentional focus narrow enough  to exclude irrelevant cues yet broad enough to detect most important and relevant  ones o Panic: hypervigilance found at highest arousal levels  Techniques for managing arousal levels o Muscle­to­mind: techniques regulating arousal that use somatic activity (e.g.  rhythmic breathing, muscle relaxation) to relax or energize the mind o Mind­to­muscle: techniques for regulating arousal that use cognitive activity  (e.g. meditation, visualization) to relax or energize the muscles  Attention: a limited mental resource, or capacity, to process information o Limited attentional capacity: the notion that attention is limited to at most a few  activities at any one time Week 6 Notes Tanski 4  Parallel processing: a type of information processing that allows people to handle two or more streams of information at the same time o Usually occurs during stimulus identification stage o Ex: color and shape of an object can be processed at same time o Stroop effect: competition between the response to color word and the ink in  which it is presented  Shows that two stimuli can be processed simultaneously  When tasks compete with each other = double stimulation paradigm o KNOW THIS GRAPH              o Psychological refractory period: Delay in reaction time to the second of two  closely spaced stimuli  Three Memory Systems o Short­term sensory store (STSS) o Short­term memory (STM) o Long­term memory (LTM)  Short­term sensory store o Holds incoming information by modality (e.g. auditory, visual, kinesthetic,  tactile) o Very short duration o Very little processing o Almost unlimited in capacity o Very little attentional processing  Short­term memory o Allows people to retrieve, rehearse, process and transfer information from STSSs o Limited in capacity o Brief in duration o Temporary workspace where relevant information is processed o A small amount of information may be held, which uses 7 ± 2 items or chunks o Attention is held in STM as long as it is being rehearsed. Week 6 Notes Tanski 5  Long­term memory o Holds information and considered storage space for life experiences o Unlimited capacity o Unlimited duration o Information arrives as a result of controlled and effortful processing 


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