European History, 2001, Week 8 Notes
European History, 2001, Week 8 Notes HIST2001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jay Morgan on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST2001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Professor Ethan Katz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see 20th Century European History in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Week 8 Notes Apex of Empires After World War I, it is considered by historians as the pinnacle of an “Age of Empires” European Mainland – Paris, France In 1931, France hosts a colonial exposition in Paris for the next six months. Other nations such as Great Britain also participated. - Covers about 277 acres. - France creates structures and pavilions that show off the colonies. Show off technology, foreign goods, but especially how far France’s reach went. - Built a mosque for the Muslim soldiers who fought for France in WWI. France considers itself the “Greatest Islamic Empire”. (Controlled most of Northern Africa and Algiers) Citizens from the colonies are brought to different pavilions to work shops and restaurants. During the exposition, a counter exposition is held to show the social and political issues in the colonies. - Pavilion workers are encouraged to protest. Despite fighting in the Great War, colonies are not given rights to self-determination or equal citizenship. - Workers are also exposed to radical political ideas and bring them back home. Exposition unwittingly creates anti-colonial movements. British Empire “The Sun never sets on the British Empire”. Great Britain controls lands from Canada to New Zealand. The empire reaches its height in 1920s. Russia Owns most of Eastern Europe and colonies in the Middle East. Joseph Stalin takes control of Russia in 1924. Its ideology (Bolshevik communism) is imposed mercilessly. Stalin imposes 5 Year Plans. These plans are meant for agricultural expansion and modernizing industry. - 93% of peasants work on farms. Private land ownership now belongs to government. Peasants are forced on to collective farms. Italy Benito Mussolini takes control in 1922. Fascist regime seeks imperial glory through power and conquest. Radical nationalists are military driven. - Wants to be the new Roman Empire. 1936, Italy conquers Ethiopia. This is seen as a revenge conquest as Italy was repelled by Ethiopia in 1890s. 1937, conquest of Libya Problems after WWI New nations emerge out of the broken Ottoman Empire. Woodrow Wilson wishes that peoples should follow self-determination in reaching their states. - Great Britain and France ignore self-determination - Little reforms are made in non-white colonies. During the creation of the Treaty of Versailles, the colonies of the empires are not invited. Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam brought a declaration of rights of the citizens for his colony. Was denied entrance. Germany, Rise of Anti-Socialism Germany was crippled militarily and economically from the Treaty of Versailles. Humiliated, rapid inflation, worker strife and nationalist movements. Problems allow the Nazi party to work its way into politics. Nationalists seek glory and to make Germany great again. Seek lebensraum- “living space”. Looking to regain lost territory. Since the failed coup by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party 1923 (Beer Hall Putsch), the Nazi party has renounced using violence in the political arena. - The Nazi’s use Germany’s parliamentary system to gain popularity. Citizens see the Nazi’s and Hitler as above politics. Only focused strictly on revisionism and clear foreign policies. In 1933, the Reichstag was burned to the ground. The Nazis saw this as a stroke of luck to spread propaganda against communists and push for martial law. - Nazis play on the “stabbed in the back” conspiracy during WWI. Convince Germans the Jews and Bolshevik communists and socialists were responsible for Germany’s defeat. The Nazis are seen as patriots. The Nazis gain popular vote and Hitler is made Chancellor of Germany. New martial law is used to create a one party system. - Leads to censorship and elimination of political opposition. The government penetrates private life of the citizens. Interwar Totalitarianism *see reading “Gentile Socialization of Politics” week 7 Fascism is becoming a religion in Italy. Ultra-nationalists seek glory through military worship. Becomes a force conversion. Originally, fascists go to towns to preach their ideals for a better Italy. Eventually comes to violence. Before coming to power, you joined them or were met with violence. After Mussolini and the fascists take control of Italy, everyone must submit or you are imprisoned, executed, or exiled. - Fascists take ideas from many ideologies and religions to create their own. Fascism vs Anti-Fascism France suffers riots in 1934 from fascists movements. Leftists mobilize to create Popular Front. - Consists of socialists and communist groups. Lasted until 1938, economic pressures and deteriorating conditions from the European economy and the Spanish Civil War. Spanish Civil War 1931, Spain’s second republic. A popular front emerges in 1935. Military uprising initiates civil war in Spain. Republic loyalists fought against right-wing nationalists. - Germany and Italy supported nationalist forces while Russia supports the loyalists. - Becomes a proxy war.