New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

HDFS Chapter 6 Social and Emotional Development in Infancy

by: Jaime Dolan

HDFS Chapter 6 Social and Emotional Development in Infancy 629152

Marketplace > penn state berks > Child Development > 629152 > HDFS Chapter 6 Social and Emotional Development in Infancy
Jaime Dolan
penn state berks
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for The Development of Children

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive The Development of Children notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Main Points of Chapter 6
The Development of Children
Krysta Murillo
Class Notes




Popular in The Development of Children

Popular in Child Development

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 629152 at penn state berks taught by Krysta Murillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see The Development of Children in Child Development at penn state berks.

Similar to 629152 at penn state berks

Popular in Child Development


Reviews for HDFS Chapter 6 Social and Emotional Development in Infancy


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/25/16
Chapter 6 Social and Emotional Development in Infancy  I. The Nature of Infant Emotions and Emotional Expressions  ­What is an emotion? ­A feeling state that includes distinctive physiological responses, can be expressed to  others, involves a cognitive appraisal and can motivate action.  ­Emotion Regulation  ­Ways of acting to modulate and control emotions  ­Basic Emotions: ­Joy ­Fear ­Anger  ­Surprise ­Sadness ­Disgust  Theories of Emotional Development  ­Theory of Gradual Differentiation  ­Differential Emotions Theory  ­Ontogenetic Adaptations  Theory of Gradual Differentiation  ­Newborns only experience  ­Contentment  ­Distress  ­Emotions differentiate from these  Differential Emotions Theory  ­Basic emotions are biologically innate ­Similar to adults ­Cross­cultural studies  ­Biology dictates emergence of complex emotions  Ontogenetic Adaptations  ­Infants’ emotional expression  ­Contribute to development and well­being  ­Specifically adapted for current developmental stage ­Endogenous smiles  Infant Emotions and Social Life  ­Primary Intersubjectivity: ­Organized, reciprocal face to face interaction between an infant and caregiver with the  interaction itself as the focus Maternal Depression  ­Obstacle to intersubjectivity  ­Mothers less responsive  ­Infants disengage ­Still­face reaction: ­Infants’ reaction less strong  Emotion Regulation and Intersubjectivity  ­Babies have deep need to connect emotionally  ­Pouting (Oster) ­Muscles very different from crying  ­”Directed” at social partner  ­Serves to interrupt crying­evolutionary origin  Mirror Neurons  ­Imitating facial expressions  ­Importance of imitation  II. The Infant­Caregiver Emotional Relationship ­Attachment: ­An emotional bond between children and their caregivers ­Develops around 7 to 9 months Bowlby’s Ethological Explanation  ­Explanation: ­Attachment provides a sense of security and safe base from which to explore the world ­Strongly supported by research  ­Harlow’s monkeys  Phases of Attachment  ­Bowlby’s (1969) described 4 phases: 1. Preattachment  2. “Attachment­in­the­making” 3. “Clear­cut attachment” ­Secure base ­Separation anxiety  4. Reciprocal relationship  ­Internal working model: ­A mental model that children construct as a result of their experiences and that they use  to guide their interaction with caregivers and others ­Work by Mary Ainsworth  ­Developed the “Strange Situation” ­Test the security of the mother­child relationship  The Strange Situation  ­Observe how babies ­Use mother as a secure base ­Respond to separation from mother ­Respond to a stranger  ­Types of Attachment  ­Secure  ­Avoidant  ­Resistant  ­Disorganized  Causes of Variation  ­Family Context ­Out­of­Home Care ­Orphanages  ­Cultural Contexts Family Context  ­Parental sensitivity  ­Secure attachment  ­Insecure attachment  ­Maternal depression  ­Abusive caregiving  ­Stressors  Orphanages  ­Can negatively affect attachment  ­Severity of deprivation  ­Age on leaving the institution  ­Quality of subsequent environment  Cultural Context  ­Cultures define what constitutes sensitive caregiving and secure relationships  Attachment Patterns and Later Development  ­Continuity of attachment status from infancy to adulthood  ­Internal working model ­Expectations of how to behave toward others  III. The Changing Nature of Communication  ­Secondary Intersubjectivity: ­A form of interaction between infant and caregiver with communication and emotional  sharing focused not just on the interaction but the world beyond ­Social Referencing:  ­In which infants look to their caregiver for an indication of how to feel and act on  encountering an unfamiliar object or event  ­Forms of Communication: ­Gaze­Following and Pointing  ­Word comprehension: ­Development: ­Inevidence by 6 months  ­Understanding common expressions at 9 months  ­Speech: ­Language: -Early Vocalization→Babbling→Speaking→Learning Accelerates IV. A Sense of Self  ­By 6 months of age ­Experience interacting with objects and people -Locomotion→ ­Separation from caregivers ­New social relations  ­Emerging use language  ­Self­Recognition  ­Ability to recognize oneself in a mirror ­Self as Agent  ­Self exerts power and control over environment  ­Two­word utterances ­Self­Conscious Emotions  ­Requires thinking about and evaluating oneself in relation to other people and their standards ­embarrassment  ­pride ­shame  ­guilt  ­envy  ­End of Infancy  ­Marked by patterns of behavior reflecting a sense of self and a new independence  V.Developing Trust and Autonomy  ­Erik Erikson’s two stages of infancy: ­Stage 1: Basic trust vs. mistrust­Infants learn to trust others to care for their basic needs,  or to mistrust them.  ­Stage 2: Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: Children learn to exercise their will and to  control themselves, or they become uncertain and doubt that they can do it by themselves.  Basic Trust versus Mistrust  ­Trust: ­See the world as safe for exploration and people as reliable and loving ­Mistrust: ­See the world as dangerous and people as insensitive and hurtful  Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt  ­Autonomy: ­A sense of ability to accomplish tasks and tackle challenges ­Shame and Doubt: ­May come to doubt their  ability and feel shame  VI. Implications  ­Infancy is an important time ­Forging social and emotional ties ­Foundation for exploring and learning about the world  ­Biological processes  ­Sociocultural processes 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.