Section 4 Notes
Section 4 Notes CRM 3343
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 3343 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Kecia Johnson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Gender, Crime and Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Section 4 Notes Glossary: o Battered Women’s Movement: shelters and counseling programs established throughout the United States to help women in need as a result of the feminist movements in the 1960s and 1970s. It led to systemic changes in how the police and courts handled cases of domestic violence o Cyberstalking: incidents of stalking that use electronic forms of technology such as email, text, GPS, and the Internet o Cycle of Violence: conceptualized by Lenore Walker in 1979 to help explain how perpetrators of intimate partner abuse maintain control over their victims over time. The cycle is made up of three distinct time frames: tension building, the abusive incident, and the honeymoon period o Dating Violence: intimate partner abuse in relationships where people are unmarried and may or may not be living together; violence that occurs between two people who are unmarried; teenagers are seen as the most atrisk population o Discretionary Arrest: police officers have the option to arrest or not arrest the offender based on their free choice within the context of their professional judgment o Harassment: acts that are indicative of stalking behaviors but do not ignite feelings of fear in the victim o Intimate Partner Abuse: abuse that occurs between individuals who currently have, of have previously had, an intimate relationship o Mandatory Arrest: surfaced during the 1980s and 1990s with the intention to stop domestic violence by deterring offenders. It clarified the roles of police officers when dealing with domestic violence calls and removed the responsibility of arrest from the victim o Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment: helped show the decrease in recidivism rates when an actual arrest was made in misdemeanor domestic violence incidents, in comparison to when a police officer just counseled the aggressor o NoDrop Policies: developed in response to a victim’s lack of participation in the prosecution of her batterer; these policies have led to the disempowering of victims o Restraining Order: available in every jurisdiction; it is designed to provide the victim with the opportunity to separate from the batterer and prohibit the batterer from contacting the victim o SameSex Intimate Partner Abuse: intimate partner abuse that occurs in a samesex relationship o Stalking: a course of conduct directed at a reasonable person that could cause them to feel fearful. It includes acts such as unwanted phone calls or messages, being followed or spied on, and making unannounced visits o Violence Against Women Act: passed in 1994; this federal law provides funding for training and research on intimate partner abuse as well as sets forth policies for restitution and civil redress; established the Office on Violence Against Women within the Department of Justice; it provided funding for battered women’s shelters and outreach education, funding for domestic violence training for police and court personnel, and the opportunity for victims to sue for civil damages as a result of violent acts perpetuated against them Key Points: o Historical Overview of Intimate Partner Abuse Women were thought to be property Men were allowed to beat their wives Alabama and Massachusetts were the first states to make wife beating illegal Enforcement for punishment of this crime was limited The feminist movement helped with founding the battered women’s movement o Defining and Identifying Intimate Partner Abuse Many different terms are used to define violence against women The most common term was the term “domestic violence” (Mallicoat, p. 132). The term that is more used today is “intimate partner abuse” (Mallicoat, p. 132). Intimate partner abuse is not limited to physical abuse, it includes emotional abuse Emotional abuse is a way of controlling a victim Emotional abuse can lead to physical abuse o Cycle of Violence Stage One: Tension Building The perpetrator becomes more controlling Stage Two: Abusive Incident When battering or abuse happens Stage Three: Honeymoon Period Abuser apologizes and promises to change, victim forgives o Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse Dating Violence People do not have to be married to have an abusive relationship Teenagers have a higher risk of being victims of dating violence because they are inexperienced in romantic relationships Children of Intimate Partner Abuse Effects on children who have parents in abusive relationships o Low selfworth o Depression o Anxiety o Aggressive behavior SameSex Intimate Partner Abuse Victims of this might be more reluctant to report the crime o Factors include: Heterosexism External homophobia Internalized homophobia Effects of Race and Ethnicity on Intimate Partner Relationships Black women are more likely to be victimized Unique Issues for Immigrant Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse In some cultures, violence against women is considered to be acceptable The fact that that these women might not speak English is a factor that can prevent them from getting help o Barriers to Leaving an Abusive Relationship Factors that prevent women from leaving are: Fear of violence increasing Worry of placing loved ones at risk Religious reasons that do not consider divorce to be acceptable o Victim Experiences with Police and Corrections Some victims are satisfied with the experience Some victims wish that the experience could be improved “specialized court practices can impact the level of satisfaction that victims experience” (Mallicoat, p. 146). o Stalking and Intimate Partner Violence Celebrities are very likely to be victims of stalking and harassment Victims do not normally report the crimes o Cyberstalking The only difference between this and normal stalking is that this crime does not necessarily need to be inperson
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