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Section 4 Notes

by: Juliane Notetaker

Section 4 Notes CRM 3343

Juliane Notetaker
GPA 3.03

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About this Document

Covers glossary definitions and key points of Section 4 of our textbook
Gender, Crime and Justice
Dr. Kecia Johnson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 3343 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Kecia Johnson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Gender, Crime and Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 02/25/16
Section 4 Notes  Glossary: o Battered Women’s Movement: shelters and counseling programs established  throughout the United States to help women in need as a result of the feminist  movements in the 1960s and 1970s.  It led to systemic changes in how the police  and courts handled cases of domestic violence o Cyberstalking: incidents of stalking that use electronic forms of technology such  as e­mail, text, GPS, and the Internet o Cycle of Violence: conceptualized by Lenore Walker in 1979 to help explain how perpetrators of intimate partner abuse maintain control over their victims over  time.  The cycle is made up of three distinct time frames: tension building, the  abusive incident, and the honey­moon period o Dating Violence: intimate partner abuse in relationships where people are  unmarried and may or may not be living together; violence that occurs between  two people who are unmarried; teenagers are seen as the most at­risk population o Discretionary Arrest: police officers have the option to arrest or not arrest the  offender based on their free choice within the context of their professional  judgment o Harassment: acts that are indicative of stalking behaviors but do not ignite  feelings of fear in the victim o Intimate Partner Abuse: abuse that occurs between individuals who currently  have, of have previously had, an intimate relationship o Mandatory Arrest: surfaced during the 1980s and 1990s with the intention to  stop domestic violence by deterring offenders.  It clarified the roles of police  officers when dealing with domestic violence calls and removed the responsibility of arrest from the victim o Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment: helped show the decrease in  recidivism rates when an actual arrest was made in misdemeanor domestic  violence incidents, in comparison to when a police officer just counseled the  aggressor o No­Drop Policies: developed in response to a victim’s lack of participation in the prosecution of her batterer; these policies have led to the disempowering of  victims o Restraining Order: available in every jurisdiction; it is designed to provide the  victim with the opportunity  to separate  from the batterer and prohibit the batterer from contacting the victim o Same­Sex Intimate Partner Abuse: intimate partner abuse that occurs in a  same­sex relationship o Stalking: a course of conduct directed at a reasonable person that could cause  them to feel fearful.  It includes acts such as unwanted phone calls or messages,  being followed or spied on, and making unannounced visits o Violence Against Women Act:  passed in 1994; this federal law provides  funding for training and research on intimate partner abuse as well as sets forth  policies for restitution and civil redress; established the Office on Violence  Against Women within the Department of Justice; it provided funding for battered women’s shelters and outreach education, funding for domestic violence training  for police and court personnel, and the opportunity for victims to sue for civil  damages as a result of violent acts perpetuated against them  Key Points: o Historical Overview of Intimate Partner Abuse  Women were thought to be property  Men were allowed to beat their wives  Alabama and Massachusetts were the first states to make wife beating  illegal  Enforcement for punishment of this crime was limited  The feminist movement helped with founding the battered women’s  movement o Defining and Identifying Intimate Partner Abuse  Many different terms are used to define violence against women  The most common term was the term “domestic violence”  (Mallicoat, p. 132).  The term that is more used today is “intimate partner abuse” (Mallicoat, p. 132).  Intimate partner abuse is not limited to physical abuse, it includes  emotional abuse  Emotional abuse is a way of controlling a victim  Emotional abuse  can lead to physical abuse o Cycle of Violence  Stage One: Tension Building  The perpetrator becomes more controlling   Stage Two: Abusive Incident  When battering or abuse happens  Stage Three: Honeymoon Period  Abuser apologizes and promises to change, victim forgives o Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse  Dating Violence  People do not have to be married to have an abusive relationship  Teenagers have a higher risk of  being victims of dating violence  because they are inexperienced in romantic relationships  Children of Intimate Partner Abuse  Effects on children who have parents in abusive relationships o Low self­worth o Depression o Anxiety o Aggressive behavior  Same­Sex Intimate Partner Abuse  Victims of this might be more reluctant to report the crime o Factors include:  Heterosexism  External homophobia  Internalized homophobia  Effects of Race and Ethnicity on Intimate Partner Relationships  Black women are more likely to be victimized  Unique Issues for Immigrant Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse  In some cultures, violence against women is considered to be  acceptable  The fact that that these women might not speak English is a factor  that can prevent them from getting help o Barriers to Leaving an Abusive Relationship  Factors that prevent women from leaving are:  Fear of violence increasing  Worry of placing loved ones at risk  Religious reasons that do not consider divorce to be acceptable o Victim Experiences with Police and Corrections  Some victims are satisfied with the experience   Some victims wish that the experience could be improved  “specialized court practices can impact the level of satisfaction that  victims experience” (Mallicoat, p. 146). o Stalking and Intimate Partner Violence   Celebrities are very likely to be victims of stalking and harassment  Victims do not normally report the crimes o Cyberstalking  The only difference between this and normal stalking is that this crime  does not necessarily need to be in­person


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