"Human Development Chapter 8 Part 1 notes"
"Human Development Chapter 8 Part 1 notes" PSYCH-11672-001-201610
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia D'Andrea on Thursday February 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-11672-001-201610 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Joynes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/25/16
Human Development Chapter 8 (Part 1) Human development: pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the lifespan What do developmental psychologists study? o Universal characteristics: what we all go through (adolescence, puberty, etc.) o Individual variation: society (influences development) Issues in Developmental Psychology Nature v. Nurture: different developmental roles influence our lives o Nature: genetics o Nurture: environment o How behavior changes Change v. Stability (personality characteristics) o Behaviors over time: personality traits When born – we have a certain temperament Stages v. Continuity o Sudden shifts or slow, gradual changes o Depends on evidence Studying Development Cross-sectional designs: several different age groups are studied at one time point o Done more commonly, inexpensive and quick process Longitudinal designs: one group of participants studied over a long period of time o Shows change over time, but takes a long time to perform study Cross-sectional vs. Longitudinal o Cross-sectional: Advantages: cheaper and quicker Disadvantages: not sure if groups are different because of generation and cohort effects o Longitudinal: Advantages: more powerful and no cohort effects Disadvantages: more time and money; attrition (people drop out of study) 3 Areas of Study in Development: 1.) Germinal Period (first 2 weeks) 2.) Embryonic Period (next 6 weeks) 3.) Fetal Period (last 7 months of pregnancy) 1.) Germinal Period: The first 2 weeks after conception MASSIVE cell division occurs The infant is called a zygote Ends with implantation into uterine wall 2.) Embryonic Period Weeks 3-8 after conception MASSIVE cell differentiation o Cells form other parts of the body Nutrients passed on through placenta (& umbilical cord) End: Indication of ALL different parts of body o Parts are small and premature Placenta: filter; keeps some things out o Mother gets hungry more often because food is passed to baby 3.) Fetal Period: Months 2-9 after conception MASSIVE physical growth 30-40 weeks = FULL TERM Ends at 40 weeks with birth Teratogens: any agent that can cause birth defect o Ex: drugs, food, viruses (passed through placenta) Can cause SEVERE problems Critical periods: time when developing organs are MOST susceptible to birth defects o Alcohol CAN CAUSE birth defects Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): a cluster of problems that appear in the children of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy o Physical and mental abnormalities
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